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José Luís Fiori

Introduction This strategy is guided by principled realism. It is realist because it acknowledges the central role of power in international politics, affirms that sovereign states are the best hope for a peaceful world, and clearly defines our national interests… We are also realistic and understand that the American way of life cannot be imposed upon others, nor is it the inevitable culmination of progress . The White House, ‘National Security Strategy of the United States of America’ ( The White House, 2017 ) The White House published the

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Fabrice Weissman

are the security specialists we met during discussions within MSF about its kidnapping policy. 7 In reality, this policy is impractical and ineffective. Even governments that insist they ‘never negotiate with terrorists’, such as Russia, the United States and Israel, cannot consistently adhere to this policy due to the political costs involved (sacrificing hostages) and the low, long-term chances of success. For a bibliographic review and an

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Uses and Misuses of International Humanitarian Law and Humanitarian Principles
Rony Brauman

(Grotius, Rousseau and Vatel, most notably). The safeguards granted to prisoners of war by the 1929 Convention were already a part of the 1785 Treaty of Amity and Commerce between Prussia and the United States, and long before the humanitarian conventions were formalised as such, the treatment of POWs had become a key political issue with the rise of mass military mobilisations ( Farré, 2014 ). In the memory of the humanitarian movement, the Battle of Solferino stands as the

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Editor’s Introduction
Juliano Fiori

University Press ). Moyn , S. ( 2014 ), Human Rights and the Uses of History ( London : Verso ). Polanyi , K. ( 1957 ), The Great Transformation: The Political and Economic Origins of Our Time ( Boston : Beacon Press ). White House ( 2017 ), National Security Strategy of the United States of America , https://www.whitehouse.gov/wp-content/uploads/2017/12/NSS-Final-12-18-2017-0905.pdf , first published online 18 December 2017 .

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Emmanuelle Strub

July 2010, thanks to enactment of the External Action of the State law and the map of officially discouraged red zones. That law enabled lawsuits against NGOs entering red zones if they fell victim to an incident requiring government intervention. In 2011, a Samaritan’s Purse employee sued her organisation in the United States after being kidnapped in Darfur the previous year. The first such case in Europe happened in 2015, when Steve Dennis sued

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Four Decisive Challenges Confronting Humanitarian Innovation
Gerard Finnigan and Otto Farkas

increase the responsiveness and effectiveness of humanitarian services’ ( WHS, 2015 : 130). These relatively straightforward and practical meanings contrast starkly with that used by the single largest donor (in absolute dollars) of humanitarian aid globally. The United States Agency for International Development ( USAID) (2016) refers to innovation as ‘novel business or organizational models, operational or production processes, or products or services that lead to

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Humanitarianism in a Post-Liberal World Order
Stephen Hopgood

Consultation Process for World Humanitarian Summit ’, www.agendaforhumanity.org/sites/default/files/resources/2017/Jul/Restoring_Humanity_Synthesis_of_the_Consultation_Process_for_the_World_Humanitarian_Summit.pdf (accessed 9 September 2018 ). Whitman , J. Q. ( 2017 ), Hitler’s American Model: The United States and the Making of Nazi Race Law ( Princeton, NJ : Princeton University Press ).

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Staff Security and Civilian Protection in the Humanitarian Sector
Miriam Bradley

civilian professions in the United States ( Stoddard et al. , 2006 : 4). Comparisons are not made with the risks faced by the wider civilian population. More generally, we know that civilian-protection activities are often targeted based on standardised categories of vulnerability rather than context-specific vulnerability analysis, and that national staff are frequently offered lesser protections than expatriate staff, even

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
From the Global to the Local
Elena Fiddian-Qasmiyeh

Emergency Appeal for Syria, Gaza and the West Bank ’, www.unrwa.org/newsroom/press-releases/unrwa-launches-us-800-million-emergency-appeal-syria-gaza-and-west-bank (accessed 2 May 2018 ). UNRWA ( 2018b ), Health Department: Annual Report 2017 ( Amman : UNRWA ). UNRWA ( 2018c ), ‘ Pledges to UNRWA’s Programmes (Cash and In-kind) – Overall Donor Ranking as 31 December 2017 ’, www.unrwa.org/sites/default/files/overalldonor_ranking.pdf (accessed 10 May 2018 ). UNRWA ( n.d.a ), ‘ United States: A Long

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Amikam Nachmani

, though, by 1999, Russia was no longer the commercial gold mine it had been, owing to the demise of the lucrative suitcase economy, the CIS still accounted for 9 percent of Turkey’s overall imports – well ahead of the United States and the Middle East – and 5.6 percent of its exports. 24 This was not something Turkey would give up lightly. Nor was it all a one-way street. As Russia’s principal trading partner in the Middle East, Turkey helped shore up Russia’s faltering economy and Russia had every reason to try and expand its commercial links with Ankara even further

in Turkey: facing a new millennium