policy of response. An attempt is made to find the ‘golden path’, that is, a middle way which reconciles between the state’s duty of and right to self-protection in the face of its adversaries, on the one hand, and avoidance of a descent into counteractive strategies deviating from democratically legal and moral frameworks, on the other. Then, in the second part of the chapter, the Israeli response is viewed in a comparative perspective with policies of other democracies, specifically, the UnitedStates and Germany. Drawing a comparison with these countries will help
The ‘defending democracy’ in Israel – a framework of analysis
‘pro-democratic civil society’ in Israel and profiles a number of notable successes which can be chalked up to its credit. That said, a comparison with Western European countries and, in particular, the UnitedStates, demonstrates that ‘civil society’ in Israel still has a long way to go before the Israeli democracy can reach that other point on the compass – the ‘immunised’ model of response.
The final, and summarising, chapter of the book can be divided into three main sections. The first part presents the reader with the accumulated body of
approach, the school civics’ curriculum should aim to generate in learners the basics of the critical assessment of political alternatives. 7
Research conducted in the last decade has shown that some of the ideas discussed by Levinson have already been taken up by many liberal democracies and included in their curricula. 8 Several countries, such as the UnitedStates 9 and, at a later stage, Denmark and Germany, 10 have expanded the role of civic studies from a reduced procedural perspective, which considers the structures and functions of
attempt to delineate the boundaries of the concept. The main objective of the ‘civil society’, according to many scholars, derives from the assumption that groups and organisations included beneath its banner have a central role in bolstering the democratic process. The source of this assumption can be found in de Tocqueville’s writings, according to which voluntary associations in the UnitedStates at the turn of the nineteenth century were perceived as the basis of democratic life. 3 In recent years, this view has gained much support in the works of Robert Putnam
establishing a Jewish theocracy. The advocate of such a programme was Kach, led by Rabbi Meir Kahane.
Kach and Israeli politics – the early years
Meir Kahane, leader of the militant Jewish Defence League in the UnitedStates, emigrated to Israel in September of 1971 and brought with him a new rhetoric and violent political style previously unknown to Israeli society or political life. Upon his arrival in Israel he declared that it was not his intention to become involved in Israeli politics, but rather that he would like to
Attitudes towards subversive movements and violent organisations
-month suspended sentence on routine criminal charges for conspiring to commit offences in the UnitedStates. The conviction was based on evidence from letters he wrote to his adherents encouraging them to engage in acts of terror. 49
Seven years later, the security forces had formed a more concrete assessment of his terrorist potential and, in consequence, began to treat him differently. The Kach leader became a principal object of surveillance by the security services, 50 and an extensive system of intelligence was employed by them against Kach. Some
is untenable because study of the
Enlightenment presents us with a Europe in which trends and counter-trends were the norm. The greater explicit recourse to reason –
or at least the rhetoric of it – was certainly visible, but there is no
The Enlightenment and religion
significant evidence of declining belief. In any case, there were
counter-trends to the recourse to reason, as the fideism of Bayle, the
considerable growth of Pietism in the Germanic states, Holland,
Scandinavia, Switzerland and the UnitedStates, the impact of
Catholic Pietism (Jansenism) in
black magic and bogeymen in Northern Ireland, 1973–74
virgin, demonic goats, and the like.
The UnitedStates might also have been a source.
Rosemary’s Baby was a cinema hit in 1968, and The Exorcist was
contemporary with the end of the period under discussion here. In 1973 the
evangelist Maurice Cerullo published The Back Side of Satan , an early
text for the growing new-right, Christian anti-satanism campaign that
contributed during the 1980s to the creation of a moral panic