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Matthew M. Heaton

economies to places where jobs were available, and from places far removed from the centres of power, wealth and education to places of greater opportunity. 8 Nigerians were no exception to this rule. In the early twentieth century, most migration of Nigerians took place within Nigeria and to neighbouring colonies in West Africa. Some, however, travelled to Great Britain, the United States or other Western

in Beyond the state
Crucial collaboration, hidden conflicts
Markku Hokkanen

Malekebu of the Providence Industrial Mission (PIM), a Malawian who had obtained his medical qualifications in the United States. Malekebu was viewed with some suspicion by the authorities, probably because his mission had been at the heart of the Chilembwe Rising in 1915. In 1927, Malekebu’s status as a mission doctor was considered by the highest levels of the colonial government, with the Executive Council

in Beyond the state
Charles V. Reed

for trade and the maintenance of its global power in a changing world order, symbolised by the Covenant of the League of Nations as well as the financial and political rise of the United States. The political and cultural wind of change, to borrow Harold Macmillan’s 1960 turn of phrase, was already blowing through the empire, however. The changes attributed to the war represented significant continuity

in Royal tourists, colonial subjects and the making of a British world, 1860–1911
Claude McKay’s experience and analysis of Britain
Winston James

. After a brief stint in the constabulary, which radicalised him further, McKay emigrated to the United States in 1912 to study agriculture at Tuskegee Institute. Hating the ‘semi-military, machinelike existence’ of Booker T. Washington’s school, he transferred to Kansas State College. 7 But in 1914 he gave that up, too, for New York. Before leaving Jamaica, he had had

in West Indian intellectuals in Britain
Harold Moody and the League of Coloured Peoples
David Killingray

, to advance the interests of black civil rights. Thus Moody had a high regard for Booker T. Washington’s achievements in the United States although he was not uncritical of his policies. 21 In Moody’s assessment Christian piety, hard work, merit and commitment to the cause were qualities he prized most highly. Moody was a great publicist, seeking opportunities wherever he

in West Indian intellectuals in Britain
Louis James

previously have gone on to universities in Britain and the United States. The History Department, led by a group of outstanding West Indians, including Elsa Goveia, Douglas Hall and Roy Augier, was pioneering a new phase in Caribbean Studies. Members of the Departments of Sociology and Education were conducting research into the lives of the Jamaican underprivileged classes that later was to feed into

in West Indian intellectuals in Britain
Open Access (free)
‘If they treat the Indians humanely, all will be well’
Julie Evans, Patricia Grimshaw, David Philips and Shurlee Swain

share, & in which he [Murray] had a very sincere wish to see them prosperous & happy. 10 While a similar protective policy was also applied to the first Black immigrants to the maritime provinces – refugees from slavery in the United States – for Indigenous people the tutelage became permanent. 11 In order ‘to promote the disposition amongst

in Equal subjects, unequal rights
Sabine Clarke

dollar shortage as Trinidad was dependent on imported food items from North America. Between 1939 and 1947, imports from the sterling area shrank and those from Canada and the United States grew so that by 1947, 70 per cent of imports came from the dollar countries, compared to 51 per cent in 1939. The New World Group economist Edwin Carrington said of Trinidad in this period, ‘the things which we produced we did not consume and those which we consumed we did not produce’. 27 In an attempt to alleviate the privation affecting the colony, a Food Controller was

in Science at the end of empire
Britishness, respectability, and imperial citizenship
Charles V. Reed

, Peregrino moved to the United States around 1890, editing and publishing ‘coloured’ newspapers in Buffalo and Pittsburgh before emigrating to the Cape Colony in 1900. He came to the Cape in the midst of the South African War, he said, to ‘devote his pen and brain to the service of the native people’. 2 As editor of the Cape Town-based South African Spectator , Peregrino articulated a belief in British

in Royal tourists, colonial subjects and the making of a British world, 1860–1911
Open Access (free)
Mary Chamberlain

agent was for the most part a concept alien to the British West Indies. The experience of being defined by race was one which West Indians encountered in their migrations abroad, either working for an American company (as in Panama in the early years of the twentieth century) or in the United States itself. The experience left an indelible impression, not lost on the generation of migrants who returned in the 1930s and who

in West Indian intellectuals in Britain