textual fowls are provocative figures of animal language and knowledge transmission.
Peggy McCracken notes that in Yonec , Marie de France positions the speaking hawk as a figure who can communicate with humans, and yet who retains a store of untranslated (untranslatable?) knowledge.
Bird language often retains this sort of remainder, as we shall see.
In medieval literature and visualculture, non-human animals convey meaning through diverse