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Steven Fielding

possible. As one of the party’s few non-white activists rightly stated, the arrival of thousands of West Indians, Pakistanis and Indians provoked ‘an all pervasive sense of embarrassment’ in its ranks.5 Colour and the Commonwealth During a 1948 Labour Party annual conference debate on racial discrimination, one delegate asked: if socialism ‘does not mean that common men can live together decently and live together as brothers, I ask you what does it mean?’6 Before the 1950s, however, practical expressions of the party’s commitment to racial equality were largely

in The Labour Governments 1964–70 volume 1
Open Access (free)
Cultural and political change in 1960s Britain
Steven Fielding

those born in the Empire and Commonwealth an equal legal status to that of Britons: government became obliged to allow the free movement of all those now effectively designated British subjects.71 Few officials anticipated blacks would want to take advantage of the Act and settle in Britain, so the arrival of the Empire Windrush came as an unpleasant surprise; but it was something they could do nothing about. Doubts about black immigration were apparently confirmed when West Indians became quickly associated with a variety of social problems.72 As with earlier waves

in The Labour Governments 1964–70 volume 1
Neil McNaughton

were refugees from East Africa, mostly Uganda and Kenya. These groups, also originally from the sub-continent, but largely running businesses in Africa, suffered persecution at the hands of newly independent regimes. Forced out of their adopted countries, and often having their businesses confiscated, these Asians found a natural home in the UK. Since then immigration has become more diffuse. The numbers are less than in the 1950s to 1970s, but the origins of immigrants have widened. The immigration ‘mix’ now includes Africans, West Indians, Sub-continent Asians

in Understanding British and European political issues
Steven Fielding

thought the ‘memory of those conditions is needed because so many workers, having achieved a reasonable standard of living, believe that the objects of trade unionism have been accomplished’. In contrast, a West Indian-born councillor from Camberwell confessed it meant little to him, as he had not participated in any of the struggles it honoured. He called for the celebrations to be made more relevant, not just for the sake of immigrants but also for native-born youngsters.115 fielding ch 2.P65 54 10/10/03, 12:31 55 Labour’s organisational culture As a result of

in The Labour Governments 1964–70 volume 1