The origins of the Algerian women’s movement, 1945–54
Neil Macmaster

students, teachers, secretaries and health workers, who were drawn into the nationalist struggle and provided the backbone of the new women’s organisations. During the decade activism was inspired by the close collaboration between European women, many of them left-wing, communist or Christian militants from metropolitan France, and Algerian women. The former, who had made significant political and social gains after the Liberation, including the vote, now campaigned to extend these rights to Algerian women. Thirdly, the colonial General Government1 responded to this

in Burning the veil
Joy Damousi

6 Viola Bernard and the case study of race in post-war America Joy Damousi The writings and political activism of Viola Bernard, a psychoanalyst of German-Jewish background who practised in New York during the twentieth century, provide a further prism through which to consider the genre of the case study, as well as broader questions concerning intersections between culture, politics and the discourses of psychiatry and psychoanalysis. A resilient political and social activist, Bernard was committed to many progressive causes. These included support of trade

in A history of the case study
Neil Macmaster

10 From women’s radical nationalism to the restoration of patriarchy (1959–62) The final stages of the war from late 1959 until early 1962 saw the most overt and radical phase of women’s nationalist activism and evident signs of the failure of the emancipation agenda to make any significant or durable impact on Muslim women. However, this apparent sign of female radicalisation proved to be illusory since at a more hidden, but potent level, it was paralleled during the final years of the war by two developments that in the long term were to carry enormous

in Burning the veil
Open Access (free)
The Algerian war and the ‘emancipation’ of Muslim women, 1954–62
Author: Neil Macmaster

In May 1958, and four years into the Algerian War of Independence, a revolt again appropriated the revolutionary and republican symbolism of the French Revolution by seizing power through a Committee of Public Safety. This book explores why a repressive colonial system that had for over a century maintained the material and intellectual backwardness of Algerian women now turned to an extensive programme of 'emancipation'. After a brief background sketch of the situation of Algerian women during the post-war decade, it discusses the various factors contributed to the emergence of the first significant women's organisations in the main urban centres. It was only after the outbreak of the rebellion in 1954 and the arrival of many hundreds of wives of army officers that the model of female interventionism became dramatically activated. The French military intervention in Algeria during 1954-1962 derived its force from the Orientalist current in European colonialism and also seemed to foreshadow the revival of global Islamophobia after 1979 and the eventual moves to 'liberate' Muslim societies by US-led neo-imperialism in Afghanistan and Iraq. For the women of Bordj Okhriss, as throughout Algeria, the French army represented a dangerous and powerful force associated with mass destruction, brutality and rape. The central contradiction facing the mobile socio-medical teams teams was how to gain the trust of Algerian women and to bring them social progress and emancipation when they themselves were part of an army that had destroyed their villages and driven them into refugee camps.

By expanding the geographical scope of the history of violence and war, this volume challenges both Western and state-centric narratives of the decline of violence and its relationship to modernity. It highlights instead similarities across early modernity in terms of representations, legitimations, applications of, and motivations for violence. It seeks to integrate methodologies of the study of violence into the history of war, thereby extending the historical significance of both fields of research. Thirteen case studies outline the myriad ways in which large-scale violence was understood and used by states and non-state actors throughout the early modern period across Africa, Asia, the Americas, the Atlantic, and Europe, demonstrating that it was far more complex than would be suggested by simple narratives of conquest and resistance. Moreover, key features of imperial violence apply equally to large-scale violence within societies. As the authors argue, violence was a continuum, ranging from small-scale, local actions to full-blown war. The latter was privileged legally and increasingly associated with states during early modernity, but its legitimacy was frequently contested and many of its violent forms, such as raiding and destruction of buildings and crops, could be found in activities not officially classed as war.

Open Access (free)
Postfeminist genealogies in millennial culture
Stéphanie Genz

second wave feminism and its collective, activist politics. Postfeminism – meaning in this case post-second wave – came to signal a generational shift in feminist thinking and in understanding social relations between men and women, beyond traditional feminist politics and its supposed threat to heterosexual relationships. Approached in this way, postfeminism could be interpreted as a cyclical process of feminist rejuvenation – emerging after momentous and organized stages (or ‘waves’) of feminist activism and

in Post-everything
Hysterical tetanus in the Victorian South Pacific
Daniel Simpson

missionary endeavour, occurred within a period otherwise distinguished, according to Jane Samson, by an emerging sense of ‘imperial benevolence’ in which ‘Christian piety, public duty and particular constructions of race and culture’ informed ‘a powerful alliance between humanitarian activism and naval power’. 5 The clamour which surrounded the perceived martyrdom of the Royal Navy's ‘strikingly modern’ and Christian luminary thus underlined the dialectical and introspective nature of the much-championed humanitarian ethos

in Progress and pathology
Nonconformist religion in nineteenth-century pacifism
Heloise Brown

commitment to testimony against war; the other, the influence of Evangelicalism. This chapter considers the importance of Evangelical religion in nonconformist pacifism, particularly the Peace Society, and the impact that theological developments within the Society of Friends had upon the peace movement. David Bebbington has argued that Evangelicalism was based upon four key elements: conversion, in which an individual experienced a crisis which changed their personal faith; activism, or a commitment to spreading the word about the importance of conversion; biblicism, or

in ‘The truest form of patriotism’
Sunil S. Amrith

-Brahmin activism in Tamil Nadu translated into a widely implemented program of affirmative action (‘reservations’) in the health sector, with the result that the ‘social distance’ between medical workers and patients is perhaps smaller in Tamil Nadu than elsewhere (Visaria 2000). The pioneering Mid-Day Meals Scheme, for instance, which has subsequently been implemented widely in other states – was a direct initiative of the charismatic film-star-turned-Chief-Minister, M.G. Ramachandran (‘MGR’). Launching the scheme in 1982, MGR declared: 139 Bayly 05_Tonra 01 21/06/2011 10

in History, historians and development policy
Open Access (free)
Kirsti Bohata, Alexandra Jones, Mike Mantin, and Steven Thompson

life in such places for an outside audience, were much less likely to comment upon it in quite the same ways. This did not mean that disability as a result of industrial accident or chronic disease was simply passively accepted by coalfields workers. For the people of mining communities, the toll of impairment, disease and disability gave rise to new forms of organisation and to a particular political activism, both of which placed disability at their core and attempted to assist the victims of coal 250 DIS ABILITY IN INDU S TRIAL BRITAIN exploitation. Friendly

in Disability in industrial Britain