Edward M. Spiers

. 24 ‘A Soldier’s Letter from Korti’, Dover Express , 30 January 1885, p. 5. 25 ‘Camp Life at Korti’, Bradford Daily Telegraph , 28 February 1885, p. 2. 26 ‘An Engine-Room Artificer’s Experiences’, Western Morning

in The Victorian soldier in Africa
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Francis Bacon’s History of the Reign of King Henry VII
Ben Dew

goods, and supply the needs of labourers. Consequently, a statesman had two important functions to fulfil. First, he needed to lure manufacturers who were masters of ‘Art and cunning’.115 This could be achieved if he bring out of other countries excellent artificers, & give them enterteinment & convenient seate to dwell upon: if he reckon of good witts, and esteeme of singular and rare inventions and workmanship: if other while also he doe reward perfection and excellency in things of Art and cunning.116 Second, he had to prevent ‘rude & unwrought things’, such as

in Commerce, finance and statecraft
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Adam Fox and Daniel Woolf

all a singing in Welsh’. Equally, it was said of the Scottish Highlanders at the same time that ‘their women are good at vocal music; and inventing of songs’. Edward Lhwyd divided these into ‘rowing songs for sea’ which they called iorraim; any ‘raucous song’ or crònan; ‘a melodious cheefull song’ or luinneag; and ‘any grave serious song’, amhran. In England, no less, it was normal for women to sing as they sat and sewed, for men to sustain their ploughing with a tune, or for ‘manual labourers and mechanicall artificers of all sorts’ to ‘keepe such a chaunting and

in The spoken word