other circumstances and
arbitrage away the casual–annual differential (see Figure 11.2). Understanding
why requires attention to a missing piece of the story: the mobilisation of the
repressive state apparatus. The persistently low pay of women in annual service
was a consequence of the intervention of the medieval state acting in the interests of the landlords with the passing of the Ordinance and Statute of Labourers
in 1349 and 1351.
Most economic historians agree that the labourers and artificers who survived
the Black Death, including women, sought to take