stabilise and rehabilitate the environmental situation and develop the
region’s institutional capacity in order to implement the remedial work.49 In
Phase One, the World Bank temporarily moved out of its traditional financial
and technical roles to become an active participant in related negotiations.50
By Phase Two, however, the World Bank had returned to its more traditional
role, focusing upon financial assistance and support of regional management and capacitybuilding. Both the UNDP and EU-TACIS’s Water
Resources Management and Agricultural Production (WARMAP) have
administration’s end in early 2017. Capacity-building efforts like the LMI continued, but faced immense resourcing difficulties even as new initiatives from China such as the Lancang-Mekong Cooperation developed later but gained steam more quickly. 29 Other initiatives were considered and had begun to be articulated in areas like infrastructure, innovation and entrepreneurship, but were not advanced by the end of Obama’s second term. Even though officials had indicated that concerns behind some of these initiatives, like inadequate staffing and resources, may have been
domain awareness and capacitybuilding, exemplified Washington’s interest in fostering functional regional cooperation around issues such as piracy, disaster management and relief, sea lane security, and surveillance of extremist activities. This initiative, however, also sits within a more extensive US and allied strategic plan progressed through Obama’s tenure: the construction of a maritime surveillance system extending from Japan through the East Asian archipelagic waters of the Philippines and Indonesia, to the Andaman Islands at the northwestern reaches of the
a broad spectrum of conflict and post-conflict formulas,
including humanitarian intervention, peacekeeping, peace-building strategies and
capacity-building, amongst others (Brahimi 2000; Chandler, Chesterman, and Laakso
2007; UN General Assembly 1945: 1.1 and 2.7).
2 The centrality of war in this account leads Centeno to speak of it as the ‘bellicist’ account
3 Tilly differentiates states according to their organisational structure, including: citystates, tribute-taking empires and nation-states (1990: 21–5).
4 The last census dates from 1984