capacity-building in this ﬁrst phase of reform.
Phase 2 (1998–2001): Red–Green efforts at reform
Against this background, fresh eﬀorts were made to re-focus the reform
of the Bundeswehr in the immediate wake of the Federal elections of
September 1998, eﬀorts were then given greater impetus by the 1999
war in Kosovo and the lessons drawn from it for the future of European security. The Kosovo experience exposed the serious deﬁciencies
in Europe’s collective ability to present a common voice on foreign policy questions and to project armed force without recourse to US
a broad spectrum of conflict and post-conflict formulas,
including humanitarian intervention, peacekeeping, peace-building strategies and
capacity-building, amongst others (Brahimi 2000; Chandler, Chesterman, and Laakso
2007; UN General Assembly 1945: 1.1 and 2.7).
2 The centrality of war in this account leads Centeno to speak of it as the ‘bellicist’ account
3 Tilly differentiates states according to their organisational structure, including: citystates, tribute-taking empires and nation-states (1990: 21–5).
4 The last census dates from 1984