Stuart White

associations a right to discriminate in employment is that this is necessary to protect the integrity of their religious activities, then, in principle, they should be free to discriminate only on grounds that are relevant to this task. In short, they should be free to discriminate only on what we may term religion-relevant grounds. We may refer to this simply as the relevance principle. First and foremost, religion-relevant grounds include religious belief. In at least one type of case – appointments to the clergy – nobody disputes the legitimacy of conditioning employment

in The culture of toleration in diverse societies
Open Access (free)
Alan Cromartie

moral teachings. Hobbes was the theorist of an institution that needed to decide between beliefs in order to impose them, through schools and the clergy, on every member of the population. One reason that legitimacy was more of a problem for Hobbes than his precursors was thus his need to justify new types of government activity. But in any case a dogma about method helped to propel him in the same direction. He wanted to give

in Political concepts
David Gribble

Education in Spain in the early 1900s had been dominated by the clergy for centuries. However, the times were changing. The foundation of Ferrer’s Escuela Moderna in Barcelona, and the publication of his book The origins and ideals of the Modern School led to a movement which spread rapidly through Spain and France and even reached the United States. ‘In every country,’ wrote Ferrer, ‘the governing classes, which formerly left education to the clergy, as these were quite willing to educate in a sense of obedience to authority, have now themselves undertaken the direction

in Changing anarchism
Open Access (free)
The Second World War and the Balkan Historikerstreit
David Bruce MacDonald

his resistance to Communism, and for his condemnation of Partisan attacks on Catholic clergy after the war. By the end of 1945, an estimated 273 priests had been killed by the Partisans, while countless more had been arrested, or had gone ‘missing’. Stepinac was targeted by the Communist authorities only after his condemnation, and he stood trial a year later for collaboration with the NDH regime.66 Tudjman’s claim of ‘innocence’ is thus highly misleading. Generally, Croats described Stepinac as an outspoken critic of the Nazis and a ‘friend of the Jews’, because of

in Balkan holocausts?
Language, education and the Catholic Church
Alex J. Bellamy

Kuhariç offered to the HDZ was based on his belief that the HDZ was a movement of the Croatian people that would seek to improve democracy and lift the shackles of communist rule, thus freeing the Church.130 Although it supported the creation of the nationalist-based HDZ and many members of the clergy agitated in favour of the party or sought election as HDZ representatives, the Church hierarchy never openly supported the HDZ and often baulked at Franjoist rhetoric regarding the relationship between Catholicism and nationalism. This early support for the HDZ was not

in The formation of Croatian national identity
Open Access (free)
Competing claims to national identity
Alex J. Bellamy

was a central feature in differing accounts of Croatian national identity. There was an important cleavage, for instance, between the urban Church leadership who refused to embrace the HDZ and the rural clergy who openly supported the HDZ. The politics of ruralisation also crept into the language question with the attempt to ban the use of foreign shop names in cities. The concepts of re-traditionalisation and ruralisation offer useful insights into the contests about the meaning of Croatian national identity in the 1990s. On the one hand they provide a rationale

in The formation of Croatian national identity
Ross M. English

members of the 106th Congress (members may list more than one) • • • • • • • • • • • 217 lawyers 184 businessmen/bankers 124 public service/ politicians 99 educators 28 farmers/ranchers 24 estate agents 17 journalists 17 medical professionals 10 law enforcement officers 9 engineers 5 miscellaneous fields • • • • • • • • • • • 3 professional athletes 3 skilled labor 3 healthcare providers 2 actors/entertainers 2 artists 2 clergy 2 military officers 1 aerospace professional 1 labour official 1 homemaker 1 secretary Source: Congressional Quarterly Weekly Report Should

in The United States Congress
Open Access (free)
Confronting relativism in Serbia and Croatia
David Bruce MacDonald

of the Ustaša death camp-officials were members of the Catholic clergy reinforced the idea that the Catholic faith inspired violent aggression, as well as hatred of Serbs. Additionally, Serbian national identity, like that of Croats and Moslems, appeared to hang by a thread. The idea that Serbs could be transformed into Croats in one generation by a Catholic education indicated that national identity was far less primordial than many propagandists claimed. 254 2441Concl 16/10/02 8:06 am Page 255 Conclusions: confronting relativism in Serbia and Croatia

in Balkan holocausts?
Kevin Harrison and Tony Boyd

the nobility, the Second the clergy, and the Third was the rest of society. Those on the political right stress patriotism, order, social discipline, traditional values, suspicion of over-powerful governments, and freedom and individuality as a higher political ‘good’ than equality. The centre has somewhat different political values, involving less inequality, a greater role for the state in

in Understanding political ideas and movements
Arthur B. Gunlicks

before the tenth century and again after the beginning of the thirteenth century. By “the middle of the eleventh century the realm was firmly united under its ruling dynasty and all traces of particularism seemed on the point of disappearance.” 3 The emperors gained power at the expense of the duchies by dividing territories, for example, the emergence of an important part of Austria from eastern Bavaria in 1156, and by using their authority to appoint the high clergy whose administration competed with that of the dukes. Nevertheless, the tendency was for the Reich to

in The Länder and German federalism