following prerequisites must be simultaneously
1 A human need.
2 Such properties as render the thing capable of being brought into a causal
connection with the satisfaction of this need.
3 Human knowledge of this causal connection.
4 Command of the thing sufficient to direct it to the satisfaction of the need
(Menger, 1950, p. 52).
Just focusing on the conditions for adoption, Menger distinguishes four
elements, the first three of which we consider as constitutive for adoption:
motivation, the objective properties of the good, and cognition. Since the
that pertains to empirically informed human and social sciences, which
are specifically called to sustain and complete scientific education so to
train future generations to be aware of and disclose epistemological biases,
and be engaged in the effort of correcting them profitably for their own
best interests and for the interests of others.
Aron, A. R. et al. (2007), ‘Converging evidence for a fronto-basal-ganglia network
for inhibitory control of action and cognition’, Journal of Neuroscience, 27:
Barbey, A. K., Colom, R., and Grafman, J. (2014
and Hughes, 1993), interaction analysis (Suchman,
1993) or distributed cognition techniques (Hutchins, 1995).
The telecommunications industry has adopted the concern about HCI,
human factors and usability which first emerged in computer hardware and
software firms. This is partly due to the influence of the computer industry,
as a result of the increased integration of computer technology and telephony. It is also partly due to the increasingly competitive environment in
which telecoms firms are operating as a result of deregulation and privatisation, which have
fortunate enough to enjoy it
– and it is a great argument in favour of having the freedom to do so.
However, the influence of these systems, this irreversible interweaving
of science and society, leaves us at a crossroads. Further integration of
weak AI into our lives, or the pursuit of ‘strong’ (Kurzweil 2005) or ‘general’
(Newell and Simon 1976) AI (that can go beyond problem solving into
human-level cognition) through the free practice of science, is likely to
cause more direct changes to who and what we are. Our place in the
hierarchy of beings, even our relative
Association and distinction in politics and religion
visible symbols of the divine, in political structure or in art’. 6 Yet, at the same time, it is the human creation, not the divine infinite, which is accessible to human cognition and perception. Religion may be the word of God, but all its evident or accessible components are the construction of humans – a point made, and causing great offence, in Salman Rushdie's The Satanic Verses . Since the divine can only express itself to humans in human form or to human perception, it can only ever be a human experience and communicated by human creation. The charge
the conservatisation of the Centre and
The long march back
the social democratisation of the Right, the NSD conjures a totalitarianism of the mainstream.
We have received our first hint of why I refer to this as the age of mainstreams. Mainstreaming signifies the contemporary closure of social cognition, value and action around conservatism. But because this process is
less visible in some countries than in others, a politics of the mainstream
may also offer the potential for reopening the social field. In order to unpack
with the human remains from its troubled past,
whether potent or toxic, but we will frame our analysis with the
recognition that Kenya’s problems with human remains of this kind
are far from unique. We begin, therefore, with a wide-ranging discussion of the politics of the dead in the context of museum collections generally, which we describe as a classic example of what
is termed a ‘wicked problem’. We then move on to contextualise
16 Human remains in society
the Kenya case, giving a detailed account of the human remains
currently housed in the Osteology
and bio-chemistry, sociology, psychology and sciences of cognition,
and technical expertise.
This shift of focus completely changes the nature of our accounts, and the
status of major questions about quality. If we consider amateurs as our
informants, instead of deciphering them with our theoretical preconceptions, these questions become difficult issues in their debates and experiments, instead of being dogmatic and definitive answers defended by each
theory. Does one need others’ recommendations to like good products or
to be sensitive to high quality? Do tastes
operable security information is generated from
organisational processes. Laurent Bonelli and Francesco Ragazzi ( 2014 ), for instance, show the ongoing importance
of paper-based memos to the functioning of French domestic intelligence
services. Louise Amoore ( 2013 ; 2014 ) explains the ways in which information
about the world is spun out by continual and emergent negotiations
between human bodies, sense, cognition, and data
alphabetical script from the Levant are historical illustrations of the processes of transfer of cognition and communication. More deeply
engaged societies can also undergo semantic and grammatical intermixing, cross-
language fertilisation and appropriation, creative adaptation of words and concepts, and phonological transfer. It is rare for invasion and migration to not have
an impact in spreading languages. The Arab tribes of the Fatimid and Abbasid
Caliphates commemorated in Ibn Khaldun’s historical accounts are one example.
A large example is the impact of Europe