Halbwachs called ‘historical
memory’ and which he regarded as part of the collectivememory. A
strategic culture as the embodiment of past collective experiences, tied
to war and the use of force, ‘is stored and interpreted by social institutions’.27 Hence the substance of a strategic culture reaches the actor
both through written records as well as through commemorations that
serve to reinforce memory. This means that subsequent generations,
who had not lived through the initial or formative experiences that gave
rise to a strategic culture, are nevertheless subjects of
separatist African and Muslim identity out of the revived
collectivememory of slavery and oppression. Black Muslims likened
law enforcement authorities in the urban ghettos to occupying
powers, and their own struggle to postcolonial movements in Africa.
Addressing a crowd in November 1963, Malcolm insisted, ‘A
revolutionary wants land so he can set up his own nation, an
years all the parties to the battle looked for a proper way to remember it, and decided on an international competition on how to re-plan the place. The great surprise was that the plan that won the contest was the one which strongly recommended neither to change nor to touch the site. His Excellency the City Engineer of Tel-Aviv: you should not go so far, to Paris for instance, to learn about squares, or to learn about the culture of designing public places, or how to deal with a national/international commemoration of a site which is a fixed part in the collective
an oppositional act of political intention’ (1994: 110). Scott is close
to Bhabha, in that intentionality should be seen not as reflecting an already
formulated ideology against power, but as a collectivememory and a culture of
insubordination to authority.9 The meaning of ‘practice’ itself reflects that historical legacy.
Everyday resistance, peacebuilding and state-making
However, this also raises a tension that is most distinct in Certeau’s analysis.
Certeau’s notion of consciousness partly originates as a critique to how Foucault
and Bourdieu understood