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Kerry Longhurst

Halbwachs called ‘historical memory’ and which he regarded as part of the collective memory. A strategic culture as the embodiment of past collective experiences, tied to war and the use of force, ‘is stored and interpreted by social institutions’.27 Hence the substance of a strategic culture reaches the actor both through written records as well as through commemorations that serve to reinforce memory. This means that subsequent generations, who had not lived through the initial or formative experiences that gave rise to a strategic culture, are nevertheless subjects of

in Germany and the use of force
Volker M. Heins

separatist African and Muslim identity out of the revived collective memory of slavery and oppression. Black Muslims likened law enforcement authorities in the urban ghettos to occupying powers, and their own struggle to postcolonial movements in Africa. Addressing a crowd in November 1963, Malcolm insisted, ‘A revolutionary wants land so he can set up his own nation, an independent

in Recognition and Global Politics
Amikam Nachmani

years all the parties to the battle looked for a proper way to remember it, and decided on an international competition on how to re-plan the place. The great surprise was that the plan that won the contest was the one which strongly recommended neither to change nor to touch the site. His Excellency the City Engineer of Tel-Aviv: you should not go so far, to Paris for instance, to learn about squares, or to learn about the culture of designing public places, or how to deal with a national/international commemoration of a site which is a fixed part in the collective

in Turkey: facing a new millennium
A view from below
Marta Iñiguez de Heredia

an oppositional act of political intention’ (1994: 110). Scott is close to Bhabha, in that intentionality should be seen not as reflecting an already formulated ideology against power, but as a collective memory and a culture of insubordination to authority.9 The meaning of ‘practice’ itself reflects that historical legacy. 63 Everyday resistance, peacebuilding and state-making However, this also raises a tension that is most distinct in Certeau’s analysis. Certeau’s notion of consciousness partly originates as a critique to how Foucault and Bourdieu understood

in Everyday resistance, peacebuilding and state-making