Open Access (free)
Gender Equality and Culture in Humanitarian Action
Ricardo Fal-Dutra Santos

Movement ( Barnett, 2011 : 1). This system is the sphere where the arguments about respect for other cultures have their most detrimental impact on the gender-transformative potential of humanitarian action. Humanitarianism’s Relationship with Cultures Modern humanitarianism is bound together with colonialism and imperialism, shaped by Western, Christian values ( Davey et al. , 2013 ). Early humanitarianism embodied the salvation

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Olivia Umurerwa Rutazibwa

opposition to coloniality, even in the most ‘benign’ of research and policy areas, like international aid and humanitarianism. Coloniality can be understood as the perpetuation of colonial systems and technologies of domination into the present. As discussed by scholars such as Quijano, Grosfoguel, Dussel and Ndlovu-Gatsheni, the concept of decoloniality encourages systemic and historical analysis of the organised (re)production of injustice and mass human suffering. Formal colonialism (which arguably existed from 1492 to the 1960s) and transatlantic

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Editors’ Introduction
Tanja R. Müller and Gemma Sou

, requires a considered debate about data colonialism. Two further contributions engage with the specific field of medical humanitarianism. Jafar, in her op-ed, takes the example of medical documentation to reflect on the challenges that overseas medical teams face in acute emergencies. Issues around security, ownership and sharing are pivotal when having to make decisions about electronic records versus pen and paper – and much might be said for the former. In an interview with the editors

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Digital Bodies, Data and Gifts
Kristin Bergtora Sandvik

the age of data colonialism ( Couldry and Mejias, 2019 ). 5 Wearables are understood as a form of ‘techno-science’ that contributes to the production of legible, quantifiable and consumable bodies, and which makes possible ordering practices that are materially productive of aid, but which may also create new protection needs for the digital/physical beneficiary body ( Asdal et al. , 2007 ; Jacobsen and Sandvik, 2018 ). Little critical scholarly attention has been

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
A Focus on Community Engagement
Frédéric Le Marcis, Luisa Enria, Sharon Abramowitz, Almudena-Mari Saez, and Sylvain Landry B. Faye

as predation, they turn to violent words or deeds as a means to be recognised. This has been well described with regards to youth politics in Conakry ( Philipps, 2013 ). The contested nature of traditional authority in Sierra Leone is similarly emblematic of state–society relations. British colonialism left behind a bifurcated state ( Mamdani, 1996 ), with despotic chieftaincies in the hinterlands and a central state without roots in society. The civil war

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Timothy Longman

.sciencespo.fr/mass-violence-war-massacre-resistance/en/document/rwanda-state-research (accessed 15 February 2019). Longman , T. ( 2010 ), Christianity and Genocide in Rwanda ( New York : Cambridge University Press ). Mamdani , M. ( 2001 ), When Victims Become Killers: Colonialism, Nativism, and the Genocide in Rwanda ( Princeton, NJ : Princeton University Press ). Mason , T. ( 1981 ), ‘Intention and explanation: A current controversy about the interpretation of National Socialism’ , in Hirschfeld , G. and Kettenacker , L. (eds), Der ‘Führerstaat’: Mythos und Realität ( Stuttgart : Klett-Cotta ), pp. 21 – 40 . Rever , J

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Brad Evans

’. The very idea of colonialism would be premised on the ability to mark out as racially inferior entire continents of people, who could be rightfully condemned, as indigeneity meant they were one step closer to the barbarism of non-metropolitan life. But even as the most enlightened liberal replaced crude biological determinants with its equally prejudicial cultural markers, so the idea that humans were still naturally violent remained the normalised truth regarding the history of the human condition and its political maturity. Hence, what remained was to question how

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Marie-Luce Desgrandchamps, Lasse Heerten, Arua Oko Omaka, Kevin O'Sullivan, and Bertrand Taithe

crisis was framed very much in terms of (anti-)colonialism. Irish missionaries, in particular, liked to frame what was happening to the Biafrans as akin to what the Irish had experienced in the British Empire. The spectre of famine was particularly significant in this respect. The phrase ‘The Great Hunger’ – which had been popularised as the title of Cecil Woodham-Smith’s hugely successful 1962 book – was used repeatedly by Irish missionaries and NGOs in relation to Biafra

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Megan Daigle, Sarah Martin, and Henri Myrttinen

); the COVID-19 pandemic only underlines how humanitarians, in our certainty that we can be solutions to crises of all kinds, can exhibit an inability or indeed unwillingness to perceive our own position within matrices of colonialism, white saviourism and gendered power relations – we can literally become the problem, bringing sickness with us from abroad to areas previously not affected by it. There is a clear need for a different framing of security threats based on a more

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
The fate of Namibian skulls in the Alexander Ecker Collection in Freiburg
Reinhart Kößler

This article explores the history of the Alexander Ecker Collection and situates it within the larger trajectory of global collecting of human remains during the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. This is then linked to the specific context of the genocide in then German South West Africa (1904–8), with the central figure of Eugen Fischer. The later trajectory of the collection leads up to the current issues of restitution. The Freiburg case is instructive since it raises issues about the possibilities and limitations of provenance research. At the same time, the actual restitution of fourteen human remains in 2014 occurred in a way that sparked serious conflict in Namibia which is still on-going four years later. In closing, exigencies as well as pressing needs in connection with the repatriation and (where possible) rehumanisation of human remains are discussed.

Human Remains and Violence: An Interdisciplinary Journal