Open Access (free)
Digital Bodies, Data and Gifts
Kristin Bergtora Sandvik

incorporated into intra-vaginal rings that not only incorporate sensors but also can potentially deliver interventions against infectious agents and vaccines. The application of wearable technology to infectious disease in manifold spanning surveillance through treatment. ( Levine, 2017 : 89) 9 Taken together, these suggestions – that users should wear tracking devices (including as a form of remotely controlled contraception: see Lee, 2014 ) that could be tools for

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
‘Case history’ on violence against women, and against women’s rights to health and to reproductive health
Sara De Vido

, involuntary sterilisation,7 maternal health and access to emergency contraception.8 On abortion, the form that will open the second part of the anamnesis, feminists and feminist lawyers have written extensively.9 In this book I will demonstrate, referring to several judgments, decisions and reports, that restrictive abortion laws cause violence to women, who suffer from depression, stress and physical injuries as a consequence of denial or limits to access to the practice by 23 DE VIDO 9781526124975 PRINT.indd 23 24/03/2020 11:01 Violence against women’s health in

in Violence against women’s health in international law
Author:

The book explores the relationship between violence against women on one hand, and the rights to health and reproductive health on the other. It argues that violation of the right to health is a consequence of violence, and that (state) health policies might be a cause of – or create the conditions for – violence against women. It significantly contributes to feminist and international human rights legal scholarship by conceptualising a new ground-breaking idea, violence against women’s health (VAWH), using the Hippocratic paradigm as the backbone of the analysis. The two dimensions of violence at the core of the book – the horizontal, ‘interpersonal’ dimension and the vertical ‘state policies’ dimension – are investigated through around 70 decisions of domestic, regional and international judicial or quasi-judicial bodies (the anamnesis). The concept of VAWH, drawn from the anamnesis, enriches the traditional concept of violence against women with a human rights-based approach to autonomy and a reflection on the pervasiveness of patterns of discrimination (diagnosis). VAWH as theorised in the book allows the reconceptualisation of states’ obligations in an innovative way, by identifying for both dimensions obligations of result, due diligence obligations, and obligations to progressively take steps (treatment). The book eventually asks whether it is not international law itself that is the ultimate cause of VAWH (prognosis).

Open Access (free)
The prognosis
Sara De Vido

criminalise under the Council of Europe Istanbul Convention to find confirmation of that.2 I regard denial of access to abortion, denial of access 235 DE VIDO 9781526124975 PRINT.indd 235 24/03/2020 11:02 Violence against women’s health in international law to emergency contraception, obstetric violence and involuntary sterilisation as forms of VAWH in their vertical dimension, because they are the product of policies or laws in the field of health. I also characterise the notion of VAWH as having an additional element: the limitation of women’s autonomy. This element

in Violence against women’s health in international law
Open Access (free)
A conceptualisation of violence against women’s health (VAWH)
Sara De Vido

prevent forced sterilisation, access to justice for those who suffered involuntary sterilisation still remained difficult.47 Where women belong to minorities, the woman’s body is ‘used’ to discriminate against an entire group, and women are considered as ‘incapable of making rational decisions.’48 Why not promote campaigns of contraception or sterilisation for men? Ronli Sifris has clearly answered this question: If a woman’s body belongs to the men in her life and the male paradigm of the State, then it is logical that involuntary sterilisation procedures should be

in Violence against women’s health in international law
Open Access (free)
The narrative
Sara De Vido

societies ‘the predominant objection against contraceptive use was directed at contraceptive control by women, rather than against contraception itself.’32 The same year, Rebecca Cook published an innovative paper commissioned by the WHO on Women’s Health and Human Rights, in which she emphasised the ‘pervasive neglect of women’s health.’33 In 1995, Aart Hendriks contended that ‘woman’s right to sexual and reproductive health is not only threatened by current expressions of deep-rooted, harmful practices – including 6 DE VIDO 9781526124975 PRINT.indd 6 24/03/2020 11

in Violence against women’s health in international law
Open Access (free)
Reconceptualising states’ obligations in countering VAWH
Sara De Vido

health services, in particular sexual and reproductive health services,’ and ‘ensure the availability and accessibility of affordable modern forms of contraception.’94 Are these core obligations, or (merely) obligations to respect, to protect and to fulfil human rights? Similar detailed recommendations relating to the rights to health and to reproductive health are included in the concluding observations on Chile, where a verb recurrently used is ‘to ensure.’95 The recent concluding observations adopted by the ESCR Committee are also divided into thematic paragraphs

in Violence against women’s health in international law