made it difficult for ACP agricultural exporting states to benefit sufficiently from the preferences. The WTO
ruling on bananas also does not appear to take account of the vulnerability of
small island economies, such as the Windward Islands. Instead it takes a
limited view of the ‘special and differential’ treatment permitted under WTO
rules. On the other hand the EU faces external pressure to reform its own agri56
The unimportance of trade preferences
culturalpolicy while facing internal pressure to maintain a socially acceptable
all EC treaty provisions containing procedural specifications (see
Figures 2.3 and 2.4), nearly 25 per cent of the European Commission’s
initiatives submitted to both the Council and the Parliament up to
December 1998 fell under this procedure.72 This is not only the result of
an EP-friendly attitude but is also due to the fact that these provisions are
mainly ruled by QMV (except for culturalpolicy and research policy
programmes). The demand for this kind of legislation was thus much
The European Union matters
122 Hamid Dabashi, The Arab Spring: The End of Postcolonialism (London: Zed
123 Hakki Tas, ‘Street Arts of Resistance in Tahrir and Gezi’, Middle Eastern Studies, 53:5
124 Ibid., pp. 802–6.
125 Tripp, The Power and the People.
126 Sadiki, Routledge Handbook of the Arab Spring, p. 4.
127 Judith Butler, Bodies in Alliance and the Politics of the Street (EIPCP, European
Institute for Progressive CulturalPolicies, 2011).
128 Charlotte Schriwer, ‘Graffiti Arts and the Arab Spring’, in Sadiki, Routledge Handbook
of the Arab
, norms and
standards, social and culturalpolicies or civil rights, or the extension of
harmonisation to new areas of policy. Euro-sceptics challenge the economic,
political and social assumptions made by those who favour greater
integration, especially with regard to the effects this would have on
national economies. However, euro-sceptics do not support British withdrawal
from the EU.