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Open Access (free)
Brad Evans

freedom and harness the creative and resistive energies of life – which notably in conflict with others, affirms difference as a condition for non-violent political transformation. What is fascism, after all, if not, as Arendt maintained, a ghastly experiment to destroy ‘spontaneity itself’ as an expression of the human condition? Violence is Associated with Some Death Drive Our violence (never referred to as ‘violence’, but designated using tolerable labels, such as ‘force’) is always presented as the last resort or completely necessary, their violence purely

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Why Building Back Better Means More than Structural Safety
Bill Flinn

where many families incorporated tiny convenience stores (known as sari-sari stores) into the front facade of their homes. Others included backyard gardening and livestock ( Flinn and Echegaray, 2016 ). Adequate and appropriate bathrooms, toilets and kitchens improve health through better sanitation and the removal of smoke. According to the World Health Organisation (WHO), 3.4 million people die each year from waterborne disease, the single most deadly cause of death by disease. 1.3 million die prematurely from acute lower respiratory infections caused by indoor

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
An Interview with Caroline Abu Sa’Da, General Director of SOS MEDITERRANEE Suisse
Juliano Fiori

-and-rescue missions. But it is citizen movements that have been at the forefront of the emergency response. Similarly inspired by cosmopolitan ideals, these groups tend to use more political language than conventional NGOs, presenting their relief activities as a form of direct resistance to nationalist politics and xenophobia. As liberal humanitarianism is challenged in its European heartland, they are developing – through practice – a new model of humanitarian engagement. SOS MEDITERRANEE is an ad hoc citizen initiative founded in 2015 to prevent the death of

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Four Decisive Challenges Confronting Humanitarian Innovation
Gerard Finnigan and Otto Farkas

required to sustain human health and life are not recovering from growing environmental stress, natural disasters and climate-change impacts ( IFRC, 2018 ; IPBES 2019 ; Myers et al. , 2017 ; Whitmee et al. , 2015 ). The World Health Organization ( WHO, 2016 ) estimated that exposure to ‘unhealthy environments’ caused 12.6 million deaths in 2012, with South East Asia and Western Pacific bearing the highest burden, of 7.3 million deaths. In 2015, exposure to environmental

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Mel Bunce

these forms of disinformation. But they have not yet closely examined their impact in humanitarian crises. This is a remarkable oversight. In humanitarian crises, false information can have life-and-death consequences. As Jeanne Bourgault, President and Chief Executive Officer of Internews, states, false information can ‘undercut efforts to improve health, make disasters worse than they already are, alienate vulnerable populations, and even incite violence’ (quoted in Igoe, 2017 ). This article introduces the emerging research about online

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
German Responses to the June 2019 Mission of the Sea-Watch 3
Klaus Neumann

Mediterranean crossing has claimed more lives than other sea routes used by irregularised migrants trying to reach Europe. 3 Migrant deaths attracted attention particularly after at least 366 people died on 3 October 2013, when a boat carrying mainly Eritreans sank near Lampedusa. Following these deaths, the Italian government launched a one-year SAR mission, Mare Nostrum, during which some 130,000 migrants were rescued in the Central Mediterranean. After the termination of Mare Nostrum, the European Union’s border control agency FRONTEX coordinated a follow-up mission code

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Bert Ingelaere

told us that it was Uwiragiye who finished off Charles and took his shoes. We saw him wearing Charles’s shoes. It was that morning that we saw Karekezi’s body; he was very close to where Charles had fallen. Karekezi’s body was naked from the waist down; about Karekezi, this is just information I am providing. About the death of Paulin, Uwitije and Mugaragu: we brought them downhill, I don’t know where they were found. They were taken there by Rukeribuga, Ndamukura Innocent, Munyeragwe, Antoine Rwabuzisoni, Gasamaza, Gasake, Nzabandora, and Nemeye. When they got

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Timothy Longman

leaders who took over after Habyarimana’s death did not have a clear plan for the full-scale genocide in advance. A loosely connected group of powerful individuals, primarily from Habyarimana’s home region in the north, many with close connections to President Habyarimana’s wife, had acted over the previous two years to consolidate their power in the face of expanding opposition. They promoted an anti-Tutsi ideology that treated Tutsi as sub-human, alien interlopers who should be expelled or eliminated from Rwanda. They had developed a network of supporters throughout

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
A Focus on Community Engagement
Frédéric Le Marcis, Luisa Enria, Sharon Abramowitz, Almudena-Mari Saez, and Sylvain Landry B. Faye

reported that living near ELWA 2 and ELWA 3 at this time was traumatising. Neighbours expressed the fear and mistrust that came with having an ETU close to them and of having been continuously exposed to death. From the beginning of Ebola’s arrival in District 6, residents anticipated a slow and inadequate government response. Local citizens organised themselves into community task forces and started their own quarantine initiatives, which included

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Uses and Misuses of International Humanitarian Law and Humanitarian Principles
Rony Brauman

’. What makes that assertion particularly shocking is its positive portrayal of the First World War, and its blithe acceptance of the deaths of nearly 20 million people (half of them civilians) and the maiming of several million more. That such slaughter can be cited publicly as an example of respect for IHL without an immediate backlash shows how easily IHL can be reconciled with mass killings, provided they can be classified as ‘military necessities’. Should we just dispense

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs