actors, akin to billiard
balls 9 whose outer shells
(diplomats, foreign ministers, prime ministers and heads of state) are
in contact. Further, a clear distinction is made between domesticpolitics and
international politics, with the former being seen as having little impact on the
latter save as regards aspects of power (power inputs). 10
Such views may seem today passé and social constructions
by recalcitrant realist scholars, but they are a fairly accurate
par with Kant (democracies
are peaceful at the inter-state level) and, as with Cobden, as one of the
pioneers of liberal internationalism. 86
As did both Cobden and J. S. Mill, Mazzini maintained that foreign
intervention was not warranted in domesticpolitical struggles for democratic rule
and national liberation.
But certain factors made him temper his views and part ways with Cobden, bringing
him much closer to Mill (see below), with whom he was
. and Josling, T. (2002), Agricultural Policy Reform: Politics and Process in
the EU and US in the 1990s, Aldershot, Ashgate.
Paarlberg, R. (1997), ‘Agricultural policy reform and the Uruguay Round: synergistic
linkeage in a two-level game?’, International Organisation, 51(3), pp. 413–44.
PCFFF (2002), Farming and Food: A Sustainable Future, London, HMSO.
Putnam, R. (1988), ‘Diplomacy and domesticpolitics: the logic of two-level games’,
International Organisation, 42(3), pp. 427–60.
Reardon, T. and Berdegué, J. A. (2002), ‘The rapid rise of supermarkets in Latin
, did so with decreasing prominence in the government of the country. As the monarchy became less of a political pinnacle, and ministerial government encroached on the governing functions of royalty, whilst a society outside the world of monarchy and aristocracy grew in public prominence, so the monarchy developed a new role as a social pinnacle, contributing more to public identity as it contributed less to the exercise of government. And whilst the domesticpolitical role of monarchy continued to decline, its formal and rhetorical role at the head of an empire