fascinated by Russia’s bells: ‘It was said in those days that there
were 40 times 40 churches and holy shrines in Moscow, and so you
can imagine [on holy days] 40 times 40 bells rang out from all these
great and small beautiful architectural edifices. And the whole city
was resounding with the music of bells.’23 Hearing Farmborough’s
voice, as she recounts her earlyexperiences of Kiev and Moscow, a
listener cannot help but be struck by her deep sense of nostalgia. With
the hindsight of sixty years, and speaking in a world still fractured
by the cold war, in which Eastern
‘phantasies’ in relation to
their earlyexperiences that led them to repress or divert internal
forces and drives, which could manifest problems in later life.
Isaacs claimed that from the moment an infant experienced an
instinctual urge, he also had the capacity to think about that urge
and to imagine the direction it may take. If an instinctual drive
was frustrated, then the infant
The short history of Indian doctors in the Colonial Medical Service, British East Africa
Anna Greenwood and Harshad Topiwala
the socio-medical worlds they
faced); district medical reports are also very useful (see below,
note 33). Very earlyexperiences are recorded in BL
IOR/L/MIL/7/12673, H.D. Masani, Report on the Health of the Mombasa
Force, including 24th Bombay Infantry, 3 June 1896 and BL IOR/
MIL/7/14462: 1899–1901, Collection 323/40 Promotion of Uganda
Railway Hospital Assistant Rahmat Ali
Balance, malleability and anthropology: historical contexts
the above-mentioned discussions of adaptation and evolution, to the varied concepts of psychoanalysis, where earlyexperiences are said to mould future character and pathology to an enormous extent. This emerges very clearly in child guidance.
It is also evident in some strands of sociology – even as part of those ideas that deploy concepts of culture as a measure of civilisation.
What I am arguing instead, is that an
brief account of Kate Luard’s
earlyexperiences of the First World War, see: Christine E. Hallett, Veiled
Warriors: Allied Nurses of the First World War (Oxford: Oxford University
Press, 2014): Chapter 1.
25 Anon., Diary of a Nursing Sister: 52–3. On nursing work on hospital trains,
see: Hallett, Veiled Warriors: Chapter 1.
26 Anon., Diary of a Nursing Sister: 88–90.
27 Anon., Diary of a Nursing Sister: 206.
28 Anon., Diary of a Nursing Sister: 212.
29 Vera Brittain, Testament of Youth: An Autobiographical Study of the Years
1900–1925 (London: Virago Press, 2004
obligations of health in the twentieth century’, in Dorothy Porter,
Health, Civilization and the State: A History of Public Health from Ancient to
Modern Times (London: Routledge, 1999); Jane Brooks, Chapter 3, ‘Nursing
the nation’, in Jane Brooks, ‘“Visiting rights only”: The earlyexperience of
nurses in higher education, 1918–1960’ [unpublished PhD thesis] (London:
London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, 2005).
74 Arthur Salusbury MacNalty, ‘Medical research’, in Arthur Salusbury
MacNalty and W. Franklin Mellor (eds), Medical Services in War: The
many illnesses and
injuries. If this was aa late as 1944, it is not clear why chemists were still
producing crude penicillin. Peake’s oral history is not particularly clear
throughout in terms of timelines, so she could have been referring to earlierexperiences in the desert. Kevin Brown identifies that the early researchers
in Oxford did not have properly designed culture dishes either and that the
team obtained biscuit tins, as well as petrol tins and bedpans, in order to
grow the mould. Brown, Fighting Fit, loc. 3546.
157 Anonymous, ‘Penicillin in the field
The concern for the ‘men of small means’ remained a feature of co-operative rhetoric throughout the early twentieth century. In a letter addressed to Fr Tom Finlay, the IAOS's vice-president, Plunkett argued that the earlyexperience of the co-operative movement ‘united men of the utmost diversity of position, circumstance, interest and opinion’. 16 Ireland's ongoing transition from ‘landlordism to a peasant proprietary’ deprived them of a semblance of social cohesion. 17 Co-operative organisations offered a means to create social cohesion and provided a platform
while on patrol with Fred, and died soon afterwards. Percy relayed the ‘pain’ in Fred’s voice when telling him of this. Some war traumas had to be shared with trusted confidants.
Humour or a light tone deflected familial jitters. It was undeniable, Arthur Sadd admitted to his elder sister, that trench warfare ‘was a bit tiring to the nerves’, but as long as nothing landed within ten to twelve yards, it did not ‘worry you a lot’. 71 Writing to his twelve-year-old sister, Edward Chapman wrote about an earlyexperience of shelling:
The attacking party had some
are afraid of an earlyexperience happening to you again. Something that is good now and proper, but the fear still remains. I'd like you to think along those lines.
She followed the same type of procedure with each patient, pushing them to explain what was going on in their sexual life and why they were seeking advice. By