Modern Kent: Stereotypes and the
Background to Accusations’, in New Perspectives on Witchcraft, Magic,
and Demonology, vol. 3, edited by Brian Levack (New York: Routledge,
2001), pp. 173–203 (pp. 182–85).
10 Gareth Roberts, ‘The Descendants of Circe: Witches and Renaissance
Fictions’, in Witchcraft in EarlyModernEurope: Studies in Culture and
Belief, edited by Jonathan Barry, Marianne Hester, and Gareth Roberts
(Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996), pp. 183–206 (p. 186).
used to inspire new, and more explicitly fictional, works of literature
recognition of painting as
the supreme model of mimetic representation. 20 In earlymodernEurope,
circulating alongside the notion of ut pictura poesis were the
paragone (‘comparison’) debates, which revolved
around the struggle for superiority amongst modes of
representation. 21 The paragone were known to English playwrights in
this period and shape a number of dramatic treatments of
at least a semblance of certainty. The most illustrious example
of the philosophical use of scepticism is found in the work of René
8 Walter Stephens, ‘The Sceptical Tradition’, in The Oxford Handbook of
Witchcraft in EarlyModernEurope and Colonial America, edited by Brian
Levack (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013), pp. 101–21 (p. 105).
9 Popkin, p. 10.
Scepticism in the Renaissance
Descartes. In his Meditations on First Philosophy (1641), Descartes
doubted all the evidence of his senses, stripping away all knowledge
that could conceivably be doubted
cannot tell what All new fashyons, be plesaunt to
me. (sig. A3v)
Boorde’s depiction of an
Englishman obsessed with different styles of clothing intersects with
anxieties about dress and the instability of national identity
widespread in earlymodernEurope. 47 Since ‘foreign cloth’ was seen as
‘sinister in its power to undermine England
I am particularly indebted to Ian Gadd and Richard Rowland for their
comments and advice on this chapter.
1 Michael Burden’s discussion of the post-Restoration Shows is an
exception in this respect (see ‘“For the lustre of the subject”’).
2 ‘Occasional events’, p. 180; my emphasis. As Watanabe-O’Kelly has
cogently argued in relation to continental triumphs, ‘festival books are
. . . not simple records of a festival, but another element in it’ (‘EarlymodernEuropean festivals’, p. 23).
3 ‘King James’s civic pageant’, p. 230; ‘Making meaning’, p. 63.
ModernEurope, ed. by
Claire Richter Sherman (Carlisle, PA: Trout Gallery & Folger Shakespeare Library,
2000), pp. 35–45 (p. 37); Lindley, p. 67.
4 It is relatively unusual to find an image framing musical notation in place of an
address to the reader or a dedication. Thomas Coryate’s playful venture into travel
writing, Coryats Crudities (1611), includes a song that praises his achievements
through favourable and extended comparison to ‘a Porcupen’ (E6v), thus framing
a written text with a musical paratext. Whilst sharing our 1563 psalter’s interest in
does not discuss the context of
monumental imagery in detail in ‘Imagine Me, Gentle
Spectators’, p. 375.
Cynthia Lawrence, ‘Introduction’,
in Cynthia Lawrence (ed.), Women and Art in EarlyModernEurope:
Patrons, Collectors and Connoisseurs (University Park:
Pennsylvania State University
Reading practices and participation in digital and medieval media
modernEurope (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1989), 141–73.
18 For particular discussions and summaries of the work on literacy rates
in late-medieval England, see Susan Crane, ‘The writing lesson of
1381’, Chaucer’s England: literature in historical context, ed. Barbara A.
Hanawalt (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1992), 201–23,
at 202; Judy Ann Ford, John Mirk’s Festial: Orthodoxy, Lollardy and
the common people in fourteenth-century England (Cambridge: D.S.
Brewer, 2006), 26–8.
19 Alastair Minnis remains the authority on this subject; see
Boesky, ‘Bacon’s New Atlantis and the laboratory of
prose’, in Elizabeth Fowler and Roland Greene (eds), The Project of Prose in
EarlyModernEurope and the New World (Cambridge, Cambridge
University Press, 1997), pp. 138–53.
23 Charles Whitney, ‘Merchants of Light: science as colonization in the New
Atlantis’, in William A. Sessions (ed.), Francis Bacon’s Legacy of Texts: ‘The
Art of Discovery Grows with Discovery’ (New York, AMS Press, 1990), pp.
255–68; p. 256. So determined is Whitney to read the New Atlantis into a
transhistorical colonialist narrative that he
‘Merchants of light: science as colonization in New Atlantis’, in William A.
Sessions (ed.), Francis Bacon’s Legacy of Texts: ‘The Art of Discovery Grows
with Discovery’ (New York, AMS, 1990), pp. 255–68; Amy Boesky, ‘Bacon’s
New Atlantis and the laboratory of prose’, in Elizabeth Fowler and Roland
Greene (eds), The Project of Prose in EarlyModernEurope and the New
World (Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1997), pp. 138–53 (p.
141); and Albanese, ‘New Atlantis’.
72 Francis Bacon, De sapientia veterum (London, 1609). See further Robert