Kevin Harrison and Tony Boyd

Environmentalism and ecologism constitute one of the most recent ideological movements. Though the terms are often used interchangeably, it is more useful to regard ecologism as a philosophy that believes in a thorough-going root and branch transformation of society, whereas environmentalism believes that dangers to the environment can be tackled within the existing political

in Understanding political ideas and movements
Open Access (free)

In 2002, the French party system seems to be demonstrating a fluidity, if not outright instability, equal to any period in the Fifth Republic's history. This book explores the extent to which this represents outright change and shifts within a stable structure. Portrayals of French political culture point to incivisme, individualism and a distrust of organizations. The book focuses on three fundamental political issues such as 'politics', 'power' and 'justice', which appear in almost all political discussions and conflicts. It identifies different 'types' of state in political theory and looks at the major challenges to practical state sovereignty in the modern world. Discussing the concept of the nation in the United Kingdom, the book identifies both cultural and political aspects of nationhood. These include nation and state; race and nation; language and the nation; religion and national identity; government and nation; common historical and cultural ties; and a sense of 'nationhood'. Liberal democracy, defensive democracy and citizen democracy/republican democracy are explained. The book also analyses John Stuart Mill's and Isaiah Berlin's views on 'negative' and 'positive' freedom. Conservatism is one of the major intellectual and political strains of thought in Western culture. Liberalism has become the dominant ideology in the third millennium. Socialism sprang from the industrial revolution and the experience of the class that was its product, the working class. Events have made 'fascism' a term of political abuse rather than one of serious ideological analysis. Environmentalism and ecologism constitute one of the most recent ideological movements.

A guide for A2 politics students
Series: Understandings
Authors: Kevin Harrison and Tony Boyd

In liberal democracies there is a belief that citizens ought to take an active interest in what is happening in the political world. Political debate in modern Western democracies is a complex and often rowdy affair. There are three fundamental political issues: 'politics', 'power' and 'justice', which feature in almost all political discussions and conflicts. The book assesses the degree to which the state and state sovereignty are disappearing in the modern world of 'globalised' politics, economics and culture and new international institutions. The main features of the nation and the problems of defining it are outlined: population, culture, history, language, religion, and race. Different types of democracy and their most important features are discussed. 'Freedom' is usually claimed to be the prime objective of political activity. The book discusses equality of human rights, distributional equality, equality before the law, the claims for group equality on the grounds of race, gender, class. Rights, obligations and citizenship are closely associated. Ideology is the driving force of political discourse. The book also discusses nationalism's growth and development over the last two centuries with particular reference to its main features and assumptions. It outlines the development of conservatism as a political ideology and movement in Britain during the last two centuries. An overview of liberalism, socialism, Marxism, anarchism, and Fascism follows. Environmentalism and feminism are also discussed. Finally, the book talks about how ideological change occurs and stresses the importance of rationality in politics.

Ben Clift

’s internal hegemony (see below), were accompanied by changes in the PS’s electoral context, presenting some novel strategic challenges. Episode 1: ‘New politics’, new cleavage formation? In the later 1980s and early 1990s, support for political ecologism in France (the principal formations being Génération Ecologie (GE) and les Verts – the Greens) increased dramatically. After a 10 per cent showing in the 1989 European elections, the Greens polled 15 per cent of votes cast in the regional elections of 1992. The fact that one polling institution put ecologist support at 19

in The French party system
The paradoxes of sustainability and Michel Houellebecq’s The Possibility of an Island
Hannes Bergthaller

advanced as a remedy for the ecological depredations of contemporary consumer capitalism (only once in the novel does Daniel25 refer to ‘ecologism’, describing it as a ‘strangely masochistic ideology’ which appeared during the last centuries of human civilisation and, in its desire to protect nature, had ‘greatly underestimated the living world’s capacity for adaptation’; Houllebecq 2006: 395–6). Rather, it is conceived as a techno-religious solution to fundamental problems of the human condition – a solution which, moreover, ultimately fails to deliver on its promise

in Literature and sustainability
Open Access (free)
Governmental power and authority in democratic ecological governance
Lennart J. Lundqvist

legitimately binding long-term commitments for society as a whole. At the same time, the spatial dimension calls for multi-level governance, involving several governmental levels as well as non-governmental actors (see Hirst 2000:22 ff.). This logically calls for a diffusion of state authority, upward and/or sideways to the international level as well as downward to regional and local governmental levels. The scale of such a problem as climate change necessitates a global approach; ‘ecologism in one country’ is certainly not a sustainable option. The variation in eco

in Sweden and ecological governance
Open Access (free)
Kevin Harrison and Tony Boyd

in many ways it is a truly twentieth-century ideology. We identify some of the many thinkers and ideas associated with fascism and, although concentrating on German Nazism and Italian Fascism, we look at the rise of modern fascism in recent years in both Britain and Western Europe. 14 Environmentalism and ecologism Environmentalism may be seen as the new political movement of the twenty-first century. The principles of

in Understanding political ideas and movements
Tony Fitzpatrick

leisure away from restrictive masculinist conceptions of economic well-being. Indeed, since both ecologism and feminism argue for what I have here called ‘reproductivity’ (though the former stresses ecological labour and the latter emotional labour), then the scope for further convergence between these ideas is considerable. It is not the case that all forms of either feminism and environmentalism converge beneath the umbrella of post-productivist social democracy, since some will prefer productivist solutions and some will eschew social democracy altogether, but there

in After the new social democracy
Open Access (free)
Cas Mudde

C C C C C C C C C C p C C C C C i C C C C C C C C C i C p C C C C C C C C p C p i a I have left out ideosyncratic (core) features, such as in the case of the DVU chauvinism or ecologism for the CP’86. (C = core; p = present, not core; i = indication, not explicit). Despite the fact that the literature of both German parties is drenched with expressions of open support of German unification, which is perceived as most important and urgent, the DVU and REP adopt legal rather than nationalist arguments in support of their case. Both claim that the

in The ideology of the extreme right
Kevin Harrison and Tony Boyd

relation to the state. It acts as defender or abuser of human rights. It creates national identity. It is the prime structure by which political power is manipulated in a society. Conservatism, liberalism, socialism, fascism and ecologism, as models, analyse power in relation to the state. As political parties they seek state power, to use it to implement political, social and cultural programmes. If unable to achieve control of the

in Understanding political ideas and movements