In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, historians of England pioneered a series of new approaches to the history of economic policy. Commerce, finance and statecraft charts the development of these forms of writing and explores the role they played in the period's economic, political and historiographical thought. Through doing so, the book makes a significant intervention in the study of historiography, and provides an original account of early-modern and Enlightenment history. A broad selection of historical writing is discussed, ranging from the work of Francis Bacon and William Camden in the Jacobean era, through a series of accounts shaped by the English Civil War and the party-political conflicts that followed it, to the eighteenth-century's major account of British history: David Hume's History of England. Particular attention is paid to the historiographical context in which historians worked and the various ways they copied, adapted and contested one another's narratives. Such an approach enables the study to demonstrate that historical writing was the site of a wide-ranging, politically charged debate concerning the relationship that existed – and should have existed – between government and commerce at various moments in England’s past.
agriculture to provide the basis of national prosperity. 6 The established foundations of rural communities and the prioritisation of agricultural development allowed the co-operative movement to attain a prominent platform to impact upon the direction of socio-economicpolicy beyond 1922.
The outbreak of the First World War and the subsequent War of Independence that culminated in the establishment of the Irish Free State in 1922, cemented political change in Ireland. The events of these years represented a significant rupture in terms of the demands
accords with Clifford Geertz's view that the aftermath of independence is often a deflating experience. 10 Despite inauspicious beginnings, serious efforts to construct the Irish state did take place. This chapter begins with an outline of the postcolonial moment in Ireland in order to locate the co-operative movement against a backdrop of political, economic and military uncertainties that shaped public policy. Attention turns to examine how the movement played a central role in the creation and implementation of economicpolicy in the Free State. The chapter focuses
in historical debates, and the subject of extensive commentary.
It would, however, be wrong to conclude that writers such as Blair
were simply ill-informed. Rather, his comments should be seen as
the product of a particular conception of economic issues that was
to achieve increasing popularity over the course of the eighteenth
century. When discussing commerce and finance, earlier generations
of historians were primarily concerned with economicpolicy and, as
such, the specific actions performed by monarchs. This ensured that
they treated trade and
the first time in peacetime compelled
to import grain from the West to cover its needs. This tangibly
illustrated the limits of Soviet economicpolicy. (Russia had been major
wheat exporter to Europe throughout the nineteenth century and early
twentieth century until the Bolshevik revolution.) This effectively marked
the end to Soviet efforts pursued until the 1950s to achieve economic
autarchy. It also became more difficult for the Soviet Union to forbid its
satellite countries in Central and Eastern Europe to make contacts with
the West, when it itself did so. The
abdication of the Tsar and several months after the Bolsheviks had
seized power’.49 She conveys a sense that, even as her personal life is
taking a new and satisfying course, the life of her nation is gradually
being strangled by the Bolshevik Revolution, the decline into civil war,
and the New EconomicPolicy.50 At the end of the 1920s, Stalin’s ‘revolution from above’, incorporating the collectivisation of agriculture, the
industrial drive of the first Five Year Plan, and the ‘Cultural Revolution’
directed against the old intelligentsia, swept away
these issues at the research frontier, but they are often ignored in the
policy context. Paradoxically, therefore, where it matters most they tend to ignore
politics in the policy prescription, although these days economics research papers
are replete with models of rational choice politics.
There are two other features of the models and the world view, which
underpin economicpolicy analysis, that are worth highlighting. ‘Initial conditions’ of natural resources, technology, etc. are taken as given for the policy
analysis. And the behavioural responses of the
plans were under way to allow the role of Governor to be an elected seat. 28 Political reform and radical economicpolicies to improve the lives of Puerto Ricans were essential if the US was to refute claims that in reality it was just another colonial power with no moral authority to pressurise Britain, for example, to commit to greater progress towards giving its colonial subjects the right to self-determination.
In response to the information on PRIDCO circulated in 1944 there were discussions at the Colonial Office on the question of
Natural resources and development – which histories matter?
Snyder, Richard (2006). ‘Does lootable wealth breed disorder? A political economy
framework’, Comparative Political Studies 39(8): 943–68
Stijns, Jean-Phillipe (2006). ‘Natural resource abundance and human capital accumulation’, World Development 34(6): 1060–83
Torvik, Ragnar (2009). ‘Why do some resource-abundant countries succeed while others
do not?’, Oxford Review of EconomicPolicy 25(2): 241–56
Toye, John (1995). ‘The new institutional economics and its implications for development
theory’, in John Harriss, Janet Hunger and Colin M. Lewis (eds), The New
Science and industrial development: lessons from Britain’s imperial past
methods and rhetoric employed by the DSIR were of most importance. The CPRC, the DSIR and also the Development Commission and Empire Marketing Board offered something significant to politicians and officials concerned with economicpolicy, apart from the promise of useful facts. The creation of these agencies was facilitated by their political utility as these bodies provided a method of stimulating economic growth and development that was could be promoted as useful and effective, a demonstration of the willingness of government to take action, without being overly