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A blessing or a curse for the employment of female university graduates?
Fang Lee Cooke

integrated set of social policies as a solid foundation, it will be difficult to expect families to operate in a self-sufficient manner, leaving those most at need in a vulnerable position and forcing families to adopt strategies that will render some of the social policies fruitless. Conclusions This chapter examined tensions in the university graduate labour market that have been intensified by different goals of the social and economic policies adopted by the Chinese government since the 1980s. Existing evidence suggests that the two-child policy exacerbates the labour

in Making work more equal

Given the significant similarities and differences between the welfare states of Northern Europe and their reactions to the perceived 'refugee crisis' of 2015, the book focuses primarily on the three main cases of Denmark, Sweden and Germany. Placed in a wider Northern European context – and illustrated by those chapters that also discuss refugee experiences in Norway and the UK – the Danish, Swedish and German cases are the largest case studies of this edited volume. Thus, the book contributes to debates on the governance of non-citizens and the meaning of displacement, mobility and seeking asylum by providing interdisciplinary analyses of a largely overlooked region of the world, with two specific aims. First, we scrutinize the construction of the 2015 crisis as a response to the large influx of refugees, paying particular attention to the disciplinary discourses and bureaucratic structures that are associated with it. Second, we investigate refugees’ encounters with these bureaucratic structures and consider how these encounters shape hopes for building a new life after displacement. This allows us to show that the mobility of specific segments of the world’s population continues to be seen as a threat and a risk that has to be governed and controlled. Focusing on the Northern European context, our volume interrogates emerging policies and discourses as well as the lived experiences of bureaucratization from the perspective of individuals who find themselves the very objects of bureaucracies.

Iain Lindsey, Tess Kay, Ruth Jeanes, and Davies Banda

. Nevertheless, Chiluba's presidency saw little change in overarching, internationally dominated, neo-liberal economic policies, with the implementation of SAPs actually becoming intensified upon the change of government (Situmbeko and Zulu, 2004 ). A rapidly accelerated process of privatization of major SOCs was implemented and, concurrently, there was a broader shrinking of the Zambian state and the decimation of nationally provided public services

in Localizing global sport for development
Theories and evidence
Josep Banyuls and Albert Recto

aforementioned aspects, quantitative rigidity and wage rigidity, and continue to this day. The economic policy proposals derived from these approaches have always presented themselves, both in the crisis of the 1970s and today, as the inevitable course of action, as the only way out of the various crises experienced by the Spanish economy. Underpinning them there is always a blind belief that businesses fail to create employment because the labour market cannot afford it. The problem, it is claimed, is not in the characteristics of the production structure, nor in the demand

in Making work more equal
Laura Chrisman

. The South African left and labour movements (in comparison with Western Europe) still have, it seems to me, the potential for active representation in government power and economic policy. If such potential is threatened by the dominance of the ANC, why must the only response be the renunciation of formal ties with the ANC and the development of a counter-hegemonic bloc, derived from cultural differences, and situated somewhere in civil society? This may be a very important project to develop, but it need not and cannot be the only one. Ultimately, Farred’s social

in Postcolonial contraventions
Open Access (free)
Tony Fitzpatrick

does not derive from TZP5 4/25/2005 98 4:53 PM Page 98 After the new social democracy our willingness to pay for it in a market. Therefore economic value is a consequence of carework, but not its motivation; some carework can and should be performed as waged activity, and should be factored much more closely into social and economic policies than at present, but most carework will always remain informal, performed for reasons of emotional belonging. In short, carework is largely non-employment work and a form of value captured by the term ‘emotional labour

in After the new social democracy
From an enabling towards a disabling state?
Gerhard Bosch and Steffen Lehndorff

, Varieties of Approaches (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan), pp. 163–88. Rubery, J. (2005), ‘The shaping of work and working time in the service sector: a 233 segmentation approach’, in Bosch, G. and Lehndorff, S. (eds), Working in the Service Sector: A Tale from Different Worlds (London: Routledge), pp. 233–56. Rubery, J. (2015), Re-regulating for Inclusive Labour Markets, Conditions of Work and Employment Series No. 65 (Geneva: International Labour Organization). Salverda, W. and Mayhew, K. (2009), ‘Capitalist economies and wage inequality’, Oxford Review of Economic

in Making work more equal
Controversies regarding epistemic wagers in climate-economy models
Jonathan Metzger

economic disutility of emitting a metric ton of CO2 into the atmosphere, considering that this emission may have both positive and negative economic effects, which will emerge over different time scales. In simple terms, it is an attempt to place a value on the total economic damage done by an emitted metric ton of CO2. Establishing a robust optimal price of CO2 emissions would, in turn, allow for the setting of a climate-economic policy (preferably, for most economists, the Pigouvian carbon-tax level) that would regulate the level of CO2 emissions so they become Pareto

in Overwhelmed by overflows?
Contesting the meaning of the 2015 refugee crisis in Sweden
Admir Skodo

-threatening conditions in the Global South will keep rising due to neo-colonial and neoliberal economic policies whose exploitative political, military, and economic practices propel people to flee in the first place. Their voice is also important because the social dislocation of neoliberal policies in Western countries will probably continue creating fertile 62 Refugees and the violence of welfare bureaucracies ground for nationalist anti-immigrant political parties, movements, and discourses. Theorists of the relationship between bureaucracy and sovereignty, from Hegel (1991) to

in Refugees and the violence of welfare bureaucracies in Northern Europe
A critical reassessment
Denis O’Hearn

macroeconomic environment through restrictive fiscal policy, stable exchange rates and so on.3 On this basis, economists cite the Irish case to support the orthodoxy of the International Monetary Fund (IMF), the OECD and other international bodies that favour macroeconomic stability over all other social and economic policy variables. The new orthodoxy as the EU enters into a phase of enlargement is to convince the accession countries that they will converge if they maximise the openness of their trade, get the macroeconomics right and encourage labour flexibility. Mainstream

in The end of Irish history?