abdication of the Tsar and several months after the Bolsheviks had
seized power’.49 She conveys a sense that, even as her personal life is
taking a new and satisfying course, the life of her nation is gradually
being strangled by the Bolshevik Revolution, the decline into civil war,
and the New EconomicPolicy.50 At the end of the 1920s, Stalin’s ‘revolution from above’, incorporating the collectivisation of agriculture, the
industrial drive of the first Five Year Plan, and the ‘Cultural Revolution’
directed against the old intelligentsia, swept away
Fighting a tropical scourge, modernising the nation
domestic product was growing at over 10
per cent a year. 72 Economicpolicy
prioritised durable consumer goods, energy, and transport and communication
industries, combining foreign borrowing, tax breaks for major national and
foreign investors, wage squeezes, and political and trade union repression.
There was a marked concentration of wealth, the public sector and state
companies expanded, family and subsistence farming declined, and
a new vaccine that they had not
prioritised, a vaccine that would push aside their own health or economicpolicies, how would they react? If an organisation like the WHO or THE Gates
Foundation, but dominated by India, China and Kenya, set up goals for
immunisation and held meetings manipulated by their nationals in which UK and
US desires were subordinated to southern goals, what would the response be?
For a country like the United States
.), The Politics of Thatcherism (London: Lawrence and Wishart in Association with Marxism Today, 1983), pp. 19–39; N. Timmins, The Five Giants: A Biography of the Welfare State (London: Fontana Press, 1996), pp. 356–60.
74 Kerr, Post-War British Politics . For economicpolicy: R. Lowe, The Welfare State in Britain since 1945 , 3rd edition (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2005), pp. 125–6.
75 J. Tomlinson, ‘Why was there never a “Keynesian revolution” in economicpolicy?’, Economy and Society , 10:1 (1981), 72
, though, liberal values which stressed self-reliance rather than state intervention continued to influence policy throughout the post-war period.
The apparent shift from post-war settlement to neo-liberalism under Thatcher is an attractive but, as Peter Kerr has put it, ‘ultimately misleading’ picture of twentieth-century British social and economicpolicy.
As this chapter has shown, even in the immediate post-war period British governments were reluctant to extend
, ‘“Liberty with order”: Conservative economicpolicy, 1951–1964’, in M. Francis and I. Zweiniger-Bargielowska (eds.), The Conservatives and British Society (Cardiff: University of Wales Press, 1996), pp. 274–88.
41 G. O’Hara, From Dreams to Disillusionment: Economic and Social Planning in the 1960s (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2007).
42 S. Ball and A. Seldon (eds.), The Heath Government, 1970–1974: A Reappraisal (Longman: London, 1996). And for their international connections: B. Clift and J. Tomlinson
52 Millward, ‘A disability act?’
53 Chris Rogers, ‘The politics of economicpolicy making in Britain: A re-assessment of the 1976 IMF crisis’, Politics & Policy , 37:5 (2009), 971–94; Colin Hay, ‘Chronicles of a death foretold: The Winter of Discontent and construction of crisis of British Keynesianism’, Parliamentary Affairs , 63 (2010), 446–70; Barbara Castle, Fighting All the Way (London: Pan Books, 1994); Bernard Donoughue, Prime Minister: The Conduct of Policy under Harold Wilson and James Callaghan (London: Cape, 1987
, 1992); Correlli Barnett,
Barnett, The Lost Victory: British Dreams, British Realities,
1945–1950 (London: Pan Books, 1996).
For the wider literature on the 1945 election and
Attlee's government see Addison, Road to 1945 ; Jim Tomlinson,
Democratic Socialism and EconomicPolicy: The Attlee Years
Children’s rights in global context
The 1970s and 1980s had
brought important changes to the structure of children’s
rights in Britain that had repercussions around the world. At the
same time, Margaret Thatcher’s model of economicpolicy that
encouraged privatisation of public services and a reduction in
public spending, together with tax cuts