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Thomas Robb

, the cut of £1 billion in Britain’s PSBR was still deemed insufficient to rectify Britain’s economic problems.18 As Simon and Burns reminded Healey, if this type of thinking won through, there would be little chance of market confidence in sterling returning until radically different economic policies were pursued by the British government.19 Given all of this, Sir Kenneth Berrill, the head of the Central Policy Review Staff, was surely correct when he warned Callaghan that Britain would likely meet a frosty response from Simon and Burns at the upcoming international

in A strained partnership?
Thomas Robb

another, and ‘there ought to be a lot of screwing going on’ but fundamentally ‘the political aspects of our relations should be overriding for both sides’.98 In a less robust fashion, Nixon issued a memorandum in January 1971 that explained US economic policy had to ‘maintain close coordination with basic foreign policy objectives’.99 In the final assessment, Nixon was not prepared to sacrifice the political–military relationship with Europe for short-term economic gains.100 As the president made clear, the political aspects of EEC enlargement were what fundamentally

in A strained partnership?
Brian White

development relations with third parties. From an adapted FPA perspective, this form of policy-making is uncontentiously foreign policy and can be regarded as constituting the foreign economic policy dimension of European foreign policy. ‘Union foreign policy’ refers to the more overtly political dimensions of European foreign policy and consists of the coordination of the foreign policies of member states in

in Rethinking European Union Foreign Policy
Open Access (free)
Thomas Robb

interests and the international economic policies pursued by the president would only further enflame US–EEC economic competition. In 1971, the implementation of a 10 per cent surcharge on imports and the refusal to convert dollar-gold transactions demonstrated Nixon’s determination to safeguard US economic interests. Therefore, the expansion of the EEC was largely seen by the president as an economic competitor, rather than as a potential partner.9 For Nixon, however, the political, rather than economic, consequences of British EEC membership were more important. Here

in A strained partnership?
Geoffrey K. Roberts and Patricia Hogwood

capital between the member states; the co-ordination of national economic policies; and a common trade policy towards other countries. The Benelux model strongly influenced the European Economic Community (1958), of which Belgium, Luxembourg and the Netherlands were founder members. Berlin airlift [See: Berlin blockade] Berlin blockade The closure by the USSR occupying power of the road

in The politics today companion to West European Politics
Thomas Robb

Trachtenberg, ‘The French Factor in US Foreign Policy during the NixonPompidou period, 1969–74’, Journal of Cold War Studies, 13:1 (2011), 4–59. For evidence of this as the cornerstone of US objectives see: Memorandum for the President’s Office File from David N. Parker, 25 May 1973, President Office Files, Memoranda for the President, Box 91, NPMP; Conversation Among President Nixon, the President’s Assistant for National Security Affairs [Kissinger], and Secretary of the Treasury, Shultz, 3 March 1973, FRUS: Foreign Economic Policy, Vol. XXXI, Doc. 17, pp. 72

in A strained partnership?
Open Access (free)
Thomas Robb

were to have an impact on US–UK relations. Most obvious were the defence cuts enacted to help reduce Britain’s public expenditure. Besides, there was the broader concern in Washington about the economic policies pursued by Wilson’s government. For instance, the president complained to the US ambassador designate for the UK, Elliot Richardson, about the Wilson government and ordered Richardson to ‘get close’ to the unions in the UK, so 04_Strained_partnership_128-174.indd 145 06/11/2013 13:50 146 A strained partnership? they would not follow ‘disastrous’ policies

in A strained partnership?
Open Access (free)
Geoffrey K. Roberts and Patricia Hogwood

, ranging from the introduction of elected assemblies for Scotland and Wales and a directly elected mayor for London to removal in stages of the hereditary peers from the House of Lords. His government’s economic policies, implemented by Gordon Brown as Chancellor of the Exchequer, have been conservative and have produced large public sector surpluses. He has made statements expressing commitment to European integration and

in The politics today companion to West European Politics
Simone de Beauvoir and a Global Theory of Feminist Recognition
Monica Mookherjee

in undermining the quality of diverse women's lives. By highlighting sources of gender disempowerment such as the disproportionate burdens on women through neoliberal economic policies, Fraser ( 2008b : 39) urges engagement of the world's most deprived in a dialogue about the source, or ‘frame’, of injustices affecting their lives. She thus offers a compelling three

in Recognition and Global Politics
Open Access (free)
Jonathan Colman

), help to integrate the international economic policies of countries concerned. Trade policy was discussed in the context of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), which sought to expand free trade. 44 There was also cooperation through the World Bank. In the years after Bretton Woods both Labour and Conservative governments were committed to retaining a strong pound and to preserving the sterling area as symbols of continued preeminence

in A ‘special relationship’?