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Open Access (free)
Patrick Doyle

agriculture to provide the basis of national prosperity. 6 The established foundations of rural communities and the prioritisation of agricultural development allowed the co-operative movement to attain a prominent platform to impact upon the direction of socio-economic policy beyond 1922. The outbreak of the First World War and the subsequent War of Independence that culminated in the establishment of the Irish Free State in 1922, cemented political change in Ireland. The events of these years represented a significant rupture in terms of the demands

in Civilising rural Ireland
Open Access (free)
Richard Bellamy

Among contemporary political theorists, the rule of law has been closely associated with the work of F. von Hayek, who gave it a pivotal role in his constitutional theory. Hayek’s account developed out of a critique of economic planning. 5 He believed interventionist economic policies and totalitarian politics were intimately connected: the one entailed an incremental increase in arbitrary interferences with individual

in Political concepts
Patrick Doyle

accords with Clifford Geertz's view that the aftermath of independence is often a deflating experience. 10 Despite inauspicious beginnings, serious efforts to construct the Irish state did take place. This chapter begins with an outline of the postcolonial moment in Ireland in order to locate the co-operative movement against a backdrop of political, economic and military uncertainties that shaped public policy. Attention turns to examine how the movement played a central role in the creation and implementation of economic policy in the Free State. The chapter focuses

in Civilising rural Ireland
Thomas Robb

, the cut of £1 billion in Britain’s PSBR was still deemed insufficient to rectify Britain’s economic problems.18 As Simon and Burns reminded Healey, if this type of thinking won through, there would be little chance of market confidence in sterling returning until radically different economic policies were pursued by the British government.19 Given all of this, Sir Kenneth Berrill, the head of the Central Policy Review Staff, was surely correct when he warned Callaghan that Britain would likely meet a frosty response from Simon and Burns at the upcoming international

in A strained partnership?
Thomas Robb

another, and ‘there ought to be a lot of screwing going on’ but fundamentally ‘the political aspects of our relations should be overriding for both sides’.98 In a less robust fashion, Nixon issued a memorandum in January 1971 that explained US economic policy had to ‘maintain close coordination with basic foreign policy objectives’.99 In the final assessment, Nixon was not prepared to sacrifice the political–military relationship with Europe for short-term economic gains.100 As the president made clear, the political aspects of EEC enlargement were what fundamentally

in A strained partnership?
Armando Barrientos and Martin Powell

differences. Our approach differs from some previous discussions in two main ways. First, in contrast with accounts that cover a wide range of social and economic policies, 14 we focus on social policy. Second, we develop a ‘policy process’ approach, with different elements of discourse, values, policy goals and policy mechanisms. 15 We use a simple heuristic model of the policy process

in The Third Way and beyond
Continuities and contradictions underpinning Amitai Etzioni’s communitarian influence on New Labour
Simon Prideaux

socio-economic policy had not only improved the living conditions of the disadvantaged but had created an unhealthy dependence on governmental support. With regard to those in work, Etzioni points to the fact that household income was on the increase. But this had less to do with an increase in real income for individuals, and more with a greater financial need or reliance on more

in The Third Way and beyond
The nature of the development-security industry
Jenny H. Peterson

economic policy and forms the foundation of economic reforms imposed on developing and conflict-affected states by institutions such as the World Bank and International Monetary Fund. Beginning in the late 1970s, this ideological discourse was operationalised by the above institutions in what came to be known as the Washington Consensus. Based on neo-liberal principles, policies of fiscal discipline, liberalisation, deregulation and privatisation were prescribed to developing and developed nations alike (Krogstad, 2007). The failure of this consensus to substantively

in Building a peace economy?
Kevin Harrison and Tony Boyd

ideas and principles shading into one another, rather than distinctive ‘boxes’ with sharp dividing lines between them on principles of social and economic policy. Political scientists also identify a vertical axis of degrees of ‘authoritarian’ or ‘democratic’ inclinations of ideological supporters. Another vertical axis might be identified as leaning towards the ‘status quo’, or ‘conservative’, view of

in Understanding political ideas and movements
Brian White

development relations with third parties. From an adapted FPA perspective, this form of policy-making is uncontentiously foreign policy and can be regarded as constituting the foreign economic policy dimension of European foreign policy. ‘Union foreign policy’ refers to the more overtly political dimensions of European foreign policy and consists of the coordination of the foreign policies of member states in

in Rethinking European Union Foreign Policy