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The clergy and emigration in practice
Sarah Roddy

economic reform aside, this influence was long thought to be the best weapon in the antiemigration armoury. Following the pattern of opinion set out in Chapter One, it was a weapon mainly deployed from mid-century onward. An uncoordinated campaign of dissuasion, largely centred on the pulpit pleas of parish clergymen, was regularly given fresh impetus by the published accounts of priests who had either settled in or visited emigrant destinations. The first of such cautionary messages was a frightening, if poorly grounded, exposé of mass Catholic ‘leakage’ proffered in

in Population, providence and empire
Open Access (free)
Kjell M. Torbiörn

6 Challenges in waiting Why didst thou promise such a beauteous day, And make me travel forth without my cloak, To let base clouds o’ertake me in my way, Hiding thy bravery in their rotten smoke? (Shakespeare)1 Summary While the Russian economy under its new leader, Boris Yeltsin, began to slide in the early 1990s as a result of an uncertain mix of change and standstill, economic reform in Central European transition countries started to bear fruit in the form of higher growth and adaptation to world markets. Military tensions diminished considerably with the

in Destination Europe
Open Access (free)
Yalta farewell; how new a world?
Kjell M. Torbiörn

walks of life, including business, that form the backbone of any free and thriving society. As the region set about rebuilding that civil society by re-establishing democracy – or, in a case like Russia’s, establishing it for the first time – most people, including those in the West, thought that economic reform and renewal would be as easy. However, building a functioning market economy on the ruins of a collapsed central planning system is much more difficult than establishing or re-establishing formal democracy, itself a difficult task. The expression ‘It is easier

in Destination Europe
Open Access (free)
Paul de Rapin de Thoyras’s Histoire
Ben Dew

information worked to undermine the Whiggish assumptions on which Rapin had based his account. To return to Henry VII, the English notes contain legal records and data from Bacon concerning the King’s economic reforms, and Tindal comments at one point, with reference to Hall’s Chronicles, that Henry ‘lent merchants a great deal of money, without gain or profit, in order to encourage trade’.92 Such ideas are in direct opposition to Rapin’s primary economic argument and challenge his assumption that an avaricious and absolutist monarch such as Henry would necessarily be a

in Commerce, finance and statecraft
Chinese puzzles and global challenges
R. Bin Wong

officials feared that some sect might threaten political stability. There is, in other words, a basis in history for permitting great variation in local social and political practices that form the unstated context for the ways in which economic reform experimentation has taken place. Where a long history of fiscal administration exists, as is the case in China, the ways in which taxation policies change is enmeshed in the transformation of existing practices with innovations and changes working only in so far as they Bayly 04_Tonra 01 21/06/2011 10:20 Page 113

in History, historians and development policy
Open Access (free)
Recovery and hubris; effervescence in the East
Kjell M. Torbiörn

of communism, the reaction among intellectuals and government officials was one of near panic. The ‘1992 project’ formed a major impetus to political, and later economic, reform in several of the countries concerned – including, of course, the Baltic countries and hence influenced the eventual break-up of the Soviet Union itself. The ‘1992 project’ was a psychological masterpiece and almost everybody in Europe became infatuated with it.11 Suddenly there was a concrete deadline, within which concrete goals had to be reached. National bureaucrats worked hard with

in Destination Europe
Nico Randeraad

sophisticated economy was in keeping with this goal. An adequate budget and account would enable the government to better harmonise revenues, investments, tax policy and economic reforms. Not a word was said about a role for parliament. Later Czoernig wrote: ‘today there is no better means of assessing a state, its administration and its agencies than by subjecting the budget to a thorough audit’.19 Again, his interest in financial statistics betrays his technocratic tendencies and his focus on bureaucratic and statistical innovation, rather than on political reform. Like the

in States and statistics in the nineteenth century
Ana María Carrillo

questions of how and why the erosion of this strategic field occurred. For three centuries (1521–1821) Mexico – then, New Spain – was part of the Spanish Empire. In New Spain, the arrival of modern science late in the colonial period was mediated both by the existence of a self-taught community of enlightened individuals interested in progressing towards applied science, and the imperialist economic reform of the Spanish state in the eighteenth

in The politics of vaccination
David Hume’s History of England
Ben Dew

English monarchs and contemporary European ones, sought to enlarge his revenue.55 The newly acquired ‘spirit and judgement’ of the House of Commons, however, led it to protect what it considered its privileges, and attempt a series of economic reforms.56 Constitutional precedent, meanwhile, provided only limited help in adjudicating between conflicting claims. On occasions, the problem here was a lack of clarity. Describing James’s attempts to increase his income through raising customs and 180 COMMERCE, FINANCE AND STATECRAFT levying new impositions on goods, Hume

in Commerce, finance and statecraft
Patrick Doyle

stated the profound dilemma that faced Irish co-operators. As editor of the Irish Homestead he possessed a detailed awareness of the impediments and challenges that co-operators encountered at a national and local level. A decade and a half spent promoting the movement and its brand of economic reform saw the enthusiasm for the hard work of social reform replaced by discussions about the quality of produce. That an apparent short supply of idealism existed among members provided a cause for deep concern. The IAOS's conference occurred on the eve

in Civilising rural Ireland