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Intimacy, Shame, and the Closet in James Baldwin’s Giovanni’s Room
Monica B. Pearl

This essay’s close interrogation of James Baldwin’s 1956 novel Giovanni’s Room allows us to see one aspect of how sexual shame functions: it shows how shame exposes anxiety not only about the feminizing force of homosexuality, but about how being the object of the gaze is feminizing—and therefore shameful. It also shows that the paradigm of the closet is not the metaphor of privacy and enclosure on one hand and openness and liberation on the other that it is commonly thought to be, but instead is a site of illusory control over whether one is available to be seen and therefore humiliated by being feminized. Further, the essay reveals the paradox of denial, where one must first know the thing that is at the same time being disavowed or denied. The narrative requirements of fictions such as Giovanni’s Room demonstrate this, as it requires that the narrator both know, in order to narrate, and not know something at the same time.

James Baldwin Review
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British masculinities, pomophobia, and the post-nation
Berthold Schoene

the unheimlich aspects of the feminine’ (1995: 201) as, more specifically, the Scottish male’s fear of his own intrinsic self-and-otherness, or ‘effeminacy’? Notably, within the imperial framework of English-Scottish relations, the Scottish male is always already feminised as a disempowered native (br)other. His condition is one of subordinate marginalisation which, whilst sensitising him to the plights of the systemically oppressed (women, for example), makes it all the more important for him to rigorously detach himself from the feminine, both within and outside

in Across the margins
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Robin Norris

’. 24 Since Hrothgar does apparently shed tears, Kristen Mills ‘re-examine[s] the farewell scene in light of other texts where the formula of a man falling on another's neck, kissing him, and weeping occurs’; 25 these parallels do not suggest ‘abnormality or effeminacy when men embrace, kiss, and weep during a reunion’. 26 This farewell is not a definitive moment of closure but leaves many questions open

in Dating Beowulf
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Greeks and Saracens inGuy of Warwick
Rebecca Wilcox

of Monmouth I: Bern, Burgerbibliothek, MS 568, ed. Neil Wright (Cambridge, 1985), pp. 128–9. Here Geoffrey explicitly links the Greeks with femininity or effeminacy. Implicitly, chroniclers of the Crusades often make this connection as well, frequently by citing the Greek aversion to hand-to-hand battle. This episode, in which Guy’s lion is killed by a Greek traitor, seems to invert a historical event of the Crusade of 1101. According to Runciman, the Crusaders killed Alexius I’s pet lion during their brief riot in Constantinople (History of the Crusades, vol. 2, p

in Pulp fictions of medieval England
Sara Haslam

be fighting hard for regulation, and objective status, and for his critical doctrines, but he sounds as though he thinks the battle he is fighting is lost. It is not only his intellect that Ford believes is belittled by his cultural and literary surroundings. It goes deeper than that. He proceeds to decry the emasculating effects of the paltry remuneration offered to the imaginative (impressionist) writer, as public proof of his public worth. He then further forces his point to suggest a ‘stigma of effeminacy’ (think back to Babbitt) attached to his branch of the

in Fragmenting modernism