Union. Electoralsystems The
president is elected by direct universal suffrage for a term of six years
and may not serve more than two terms.
Elections to the Nationalrat are based
on a system of proportional representation, the ‘enforced’
preference voting system, with a 4 per cent threshold. Term of office: four
using proportional representation electoralsystem
based on the Departments. (The two-ballot electoralsystem was reinstated
from November 1986.) First direct elections to regional councils held.
20 September 1992 Referendum
narrowly approves Maastricht Treaty (51 per cent vote in favour).
24 January 1999 National
Front splits (mainly concerning strategies relating to alliances with other
streitbare Demokratie Structural Funds [See: Economic and
Social Cohesion] subsidiarity Suez crisis
Tangentopoli terrorism Treaties of
Rome Treaty of European Union (TEU) [See: Maastricht
Treaty] Treaty of Nice Treuhandanstalt Trizonia
[See: Bizonia] two-ballot electoralsystem ‘Two
of national politico-legal structures, such as constitutions and party and electoralsystems, on development projects and the lineaments of economic governance. Elections and IMF-approved economic models have been the cornerstones of the projects. Relatively little attention has been paid either to the grassroots dynamics of these political and economic models, or to other dimensions of governance – in particular, to whether and how practical alternatives to violence, as a means of managing conflict, may be evolving. Yet experience to date in peace
This section provides, in the style of a dictionary, details of the political
careers of significant West European politicians, especially those who have
been head of their country’s government or head of state.