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Geoffrey K. Roberts and Patricia Hogwood

Union. Electoral systems The president is elected by direct universal suffrage for a term of six years and may not serve more than two terms. Elections to the Nationalrat are based on a system of proportional representation, the ‘enforced’ preference voting system, with a 4 per cent threshold. Term of office: four years. Austrian presidential

in The politics today companion to West European Politics
Open Access (free)
Geoffrey K. Roberts and Patricia Hogwood

using proportional representation electoral system based on the Departments. (The two-ballot electoral system was reinstated from November 1986.) First direct elections to regional councils held. 20 September 1992 Referendum narrowly approves Maastricht Treaty (51 per cent vote in favour). 24 January 1999 National Front splits (mainly concerning strategies relating to alliances with other parties). Mégret

in The politics today companion to West European Politics
Geoffrey K. Roberts and Patricia Hogwood

streitbare Demokratie Structural Funds [See: Economic and Social Cohesion] subsidiarity Suez crisis Tangentopoli terrorism Treaties of Rome Treaty of European Union (TEU) [See: Maastricht Treaty] Treaty of Nice Treuhandanstalt Trizonia [See: Bizonia] two-ballot electoral system ‘Two

in The politics today companion to West European Politics
Open Access (free)
M. Anne Brown

of national politico-legal structures, such as constitutions and party and electoral systems, on development projects and the lineaments of economic governance. Elections and IMF-approved economic models have been the cornerstones of the projects. Relatively little attention has been paid either to the grassroots dynamics of these political and economic models, or to other dimensions of governance – in particular, to whether and how practical alternatives to violence, as a means of managing conflict, may be evolving. Yet experience to date in peace

in Human rights and the borders of suffering
Open Access (free)
Geoffrey K. Roberts and Patricia Hogwood

This section provides, in the style of a dictionary, details of the political careers of significant West European politicians, especially those who have been head of their country’s government or head of state.

in The politics today companion to West European Politics