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Geoffrey K. Roberts and Patricia Hogwood

Union. Electoral systems The president is elected by direct universal suffrage for a term of six years and may not serve more than two terms. Elections to the Nationalrat are based on a system of proportional representation, the ‘enforced’ preference voting system, with a 4 per cent threshold. Term of office: four years. Austrian presidential

in The politics today companion to West European Politics
Open Access (free)
Geoffrey K. Roberts and Patricia Hogwood

using proportional representation electoral system based on the Departments. (The two-ballot electoral system was reinstated from November 1986.) First direct elections to regional councils held. 20 September 1992 Referendum narrowly approves Maastricht Treaty (51 per cent vote in favour). 24 January 1999 National Front splits (mainly concerning strategies relating to alliances with other parties). Mégret

in The politics today companion to West European Politics
Geoffrey K. Roberts and Patricia Hogwood

streitbare Demokratie Structural Funds [See: Economic and Social Cohesion] subsidiarity Suez crisis Tangentopoli terrorism Treaties of Rome Treaty of European Union (TEU) [See: Maastricht Treaty] Treaty of Nice Treuhandanstalt Trizonia [See: Bizonia] two-ballot electoral system ‘Two

in The politics today companion to West European Politics
Open Access (free)
Kevin Harrison and Tony Boyd

. At its height it never returned even one MP (partly, of course, due to the British electoral system, but mainly because of its unpalatable political views). In 1967, however, the National Front (NF) was formed. It purveyed a strongly anti-immigrant policy, rather than the anti-Semitism of the BUF. Itself an amalgam of a complex grouping of tiny racist parties, the National Front was riven by dissension and splits, and although it caused something

in Understanding political ideas and movements
Open Access (free)
M. Anne Brown

of national politico-legal structures, such as constitutions and party and electoral systems, on development projects and the lineaments of economic governance. Elections and IMF-approved economic models have been the cornerstones of the projects. Relatively little attention has been paid either to the grassroots dynamics of these political and economic models, or to other dimensions of governance – in particular, to whether and how practical alternatives to violence, as a means of managing conflict, may be evolving. Yet experience to date in peace

in Human rights and the borders of suffering
Rousseau as a constitutionalist
Mads Qvortrup

.), Rousseau, l’‘Emile’, et la Révolution (Paris: Universitas, 1992). 23 J.S. Mill, it will be remembered, was anything but liberal. In Chapter VIII of Considerations on Representative Government he thus advocated that graduates should be given two votes to prevent the uneducated from gaining influence. Interestingly – and rather incredibly – this system existed in Britain until the late 1940s. See Robert Blackburn, The Electoral System in the United Kingdom (London: Macmillan, 1996). 24 In The Politics, Aristotle – in classical teleological fashion – noted ‘if earlier forms

in The political philosophy of Jean-Jacques Rousseau
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Partial offsets and unfinished business
Dimitris N. Chryssochoou, Michael J. Tsinisizelis, Stelios Stavridis, and Kostas Ifantis

Council in view of future enlargement; The Amsterdam reforms ● ● ● 73 the composition of the Commission and the EP, and the latter’s electoral system; Common Foreign and Security Policy;16 Justice and Home Affairs. Transparency and subsidiarity These issues are dealt with together since they tend to have overlapping consequences. At any rate, they are part of the package, which is linked to the relationship between the Union and its citizens. The AMT has elevated the importance of the issue by including ten chapters dealing with various relevant subjects. Increased

in Theory and reform in the European Union
Dimitris N. Chryssochoou, Michael J. Tsinisizelis, Stelios Stavridis, and Kostas Ifantis

period for accommodating the MEPs from the new member states. Second, it suggested that there should be a provision inserted in the Treaty related to the 2009 Euro-elections, according to which 10 per cent of the EP’s membership will be elected in a single constituency with two lists, one European and one national. This means that the EP is proposing a limited transfer of the German electoral system at the larger level. The pro-federal features of this suggestion are evident and need no further comment! Third, regarding both the operation and organisation of EU

in Theory and reform in the European Union
Open Access (free)
Geoffrey K. Roberts and Patricia Hogwood

This section provides, in the style of a dictionary, details of the political careers of significant West European politicians, especially those who have been head of their country’s government or head of state.

in The politics today companion to West European Politics