Setting the standards for disability in the interwar period.

Measuring difference, numbering normal provides a detailed study of the technological construction of disability by examining how the audiometer and spirometer were used to create numerical proxies for invisible and inarticulable experiences. Measurements, and their manipulation, have been underestimated as crucial historical forces motivating and guiding the way we think about disability. Using measurement technology as a lens, this book draws together several existing discussions on disability, healthcare, medical practice, embodiment and emerging medical and scientific technologies at the turn of the twentieth century. As such, this work connects several important and usually separate academic subject areas and historical specialisms. The standards embedded in instrumentation created strict but ultimately arbitrary thresholds of normalcy and abnormalcy. Considering these standards from a long historical perspective reveals how these dividing lines shifted when pushed. The central thesis of this book is that health measurements are given artificial authority if they are particularly amenable to calculability and easy measurement. These measurement processes were perpetuated and perfected in the interwar years in Britain as the previously invisible limits of the body were made visible and measurable. Determination to consider body processes as quantifiable was driven by the need to compensate for disability occasioned by warfare or industry. This focus thus draws attention to the biopower associated with systems, which has emerged as a central area of concern for modern healthcare in the second decade of the twenty-first century.

Open Access (free)
Legitimization and limits of Mughal military violence in early modern South Asia
Pratyay Nath

This chapter explores how the Mughal Empire legitimized its perpetration of military violence in early modern South Asia. It begins by highlighting that Mughal imperial discourse laid great emphasis on the dispensation of justice as the cornerstone of kingship. In turn, this allowed the empire to conceptualize the waging of war and the committing of violence as necessary means for establishing a just social order under the paternal guardianship of the emperor. Within such an ideological framework, war and violence were thought of more as a moral compulsion than a matter of princely whim or dynastic ambition. The chapter also studies the nature, purpose, and effects of military violence perpetrated by Mughal armies in the course of campaigns during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. It argues that the scale of this violence was always limited by the urge of the Mughal emperors to project themselves – in both discourse and actuality – as the embodiment of just, tolerant, and caring universal sovereigns. The chapter concludes by assessing the role of military violence in Mughal empire-building and by comparing the Mughal case with other polities of early modern Eurasia.

in A global history of early modern violence

By expanding the geographical scope of the history of violence and war, this volume challenges both Western and state-centric narratives of the decline of violence and its relationship to modernity. It highlights instead similarities across early modernity in terms of representations, legitimations, applications of, and motivations for violence. It seeks to integrate methodologies of the study of violence into the history of war, thereby extending the historical significance of both fields of research. Thirteen case studies outline the myriad ways in which large-scale violence was understood and used by states and non-state actors throughout the early modern period across Africa, Asia, the Americas, the Atlantic, and Europe, demonstrating that it was far more complex than would be suggested by simple narratives of conquest and resistance. Moreover, key features of imperial violence apply equally to large-scale violence within societies. As the authors argue, violence was a continuum, ranging from small-scale, local actions to full-blown war. The latter was privileged legally and increasingly associated with states during early modernity, but its legitimacy was frequently contested and many of its violent forms, such as raiding and destruction of buildings and crops, could be found in activities not officially classed as war.

Open Access (free)
Coreen Anne McGuire

dangerous drug use. We have almost no understanding of how usage of such devices impacts on individual interoception, embodiment, anxiety or cognition of sensation. Related concerns are growing about how the data these devices generate will be stored and used in the future, especially by the state. The kind of data embedded in spirometric standards and in the artificial ear was recoverable and available in archives, but this is unlikely to be the case in the context of private commercial companies used in nationalised contexts. Indeed, an influential think tank has

in Measuring difference, numbering normal
Open Access (free)
Masha Belenky

not depend solely on the physical transformation and modernisation of urban spaces. Rather, it involves the perception and representation of a phenomenon as new, a self-conscious understanding of one’s moment as radically departing from what preceded it. 9 The documents I examine in this book reveal a remarkable awareness of the omnibus as the embodiment of the new. 10 To begin with, the omnibus represented a major advance in urban locomotion, one that allowed Parisians of any social class to traverse the capital in comfort and at a speed the majority of them had

in Engine of modernity
Open Access (free)
Sarah Roddy

railroad worker and an Irish farmer respectively. Each rose to prominence not merely as priests, but, in Smith’s case, as the best Irish-American clerical novelist of the late nineteenth century – a surprisingly crowded field – and in Ryan’s, as the leading social thinker in the early twentieth-century American church.8 They were living contradictions of Shinnors’ wider fears, and embodiments of what Smith elsewhere described as ‘the triumphs of the [Irish] race and its religion through the very exile which was intended to destroy it’.9 Such men and their flocks – as San

in Population, providence and empire
Emergency nursing in the Indian Mutiny
Sam Goodman

accepted out of necessity. The memsahibs of India thus become an inert embodiment of what the Army and East India Company were fighting for throughout the remainder of the rebellion: the idealised mothers, dutiful wives and ladies of colonial India, and of the wider Empire. As much as these diaries are a testament to the efforts of lady amateurs, they remain also a consolidation of the position of the gentleman professional. Notes  1 Throughout the chapter, the events of 1857 are largely referred to as the Indian Mutiny, not for any political or ideological reason, but

in Colonial caring
Dorothy Porter

creativity and Parkinson's Disease have generated a counterculture represented in the narratives articulated by patients, according to which ontological stasis is replaced with emergence, changing the relationship between embodiment and becoming. As a result, sufferers have dispersed the materiality of disability by creating the meaning of shifting embodiments for themselves and others: for example by engaging, expressing and disseminating the contradictions of dread and subliminal exquisiteness through artistic work, thereby unfolding the consequences of the misfolding

in Balancing the self
Open Access (free)
The change in mentality
Simha Goldin

heart of Judaism—the Talmud. He Goldin, Apostasy and Jewish identity.indd 120 20/08/2014 12:34:47 Conclusions: The change in mentality 121 deliberately ignored the usual Christian direction of theological debate with the principles of Judaism, and the attempt to achieve a theological victory in polemics, directing his arrows against what he saw as the embodiment of the very soul of the Jewish people. It is that which he wishes to harm—and does. And indeed, at the end of the thirteenth century, when R. Meir ben Baruch of Rothenburg attempted to initiate an ‘Exodus

in Apostasy and Jewish identity in High Middle Ages Northern Europe
Staging class aboard the omnibus
Masha Belenky

fabric represents a diversity of social positions. Soullier extols the omnibus as the embodiment of equality: if in the past, only the chosen ones had access to carriages (‘Jadis les seigneurs seuls cheminaient en carrosses’), now everyone has the right to ride. This right, in Soullier’s view, is emblematic of his century’s move toward privileging merit over birth: Une voiture à tous! Voilà du communisme Pratiqué sans l’emphase et prêché sans cynisme! […] Mais aujourd’hui, le siècle a annulé les races; Il partage entre tous les faveurs et les

in Engine of modernity