embodiment. That is, whether an individual has a body which they are separate from as the body-as-machine model suggests, or whether a person experiences embodiment as being a body and there is no separation. Or indeed whether the experience of embodiment is ambiguous, variable and fluid, affected by events occurring in the body, and the environment outside it.
Through a review of social science research conducted with organ transplantation recipients, it is shown that the identity changes most frequently mentioned are an alteration in gender or age, or preferences for
Using a range of social science methods and drawing on the sociology of the body, biomedicine and technology, Haddow invites readers of ‘Embodiment and everyday cyborgs’ to consider whether they might prefer organs from other humans or non-human animals (known as xenotransplantation), or implantable ‘cybernetic’ technologies to replace their own? In discovering that individuals have a very clear preference for human organs but not for the non-human, Haddow suggests that the inside of our bodies may be more important to our sense of identity than may have previously been thought. Whereas organs from other (once) living bodies can contaminate the body of the recipient (simultaneously altering subjectivity so they inherit traits e.g. gender), cybernetic technology is acclimatised to and becomes part of the body and subjectivity. In organ transplantation the organ has the potential to alter subjectivity – whereas with cybernetic technology it does not alter identity but is incorporated into existing subjectivity. Technologies are clean from previous organic fleshy associations and although they may malfunction or cause infection, they do not alter identity in the way that an organ might. Yet, we are arguably creating a 21st-century identity crisis through an increasing reliance on cybernetic technologies such as implantable cardiac defibrillators (ICDs) creating new forms of ‘un-health’ and a new category of patient called ‘everyday cyborgs’ who have to develop strategies to incorporate device alienation as well as reinserting human agency over ICD activation.
kinds of materials that could be used to repair and replace the body? To what effects? The technologies of human, animal and mechanical that could be used to restore the body are socially constructed within a nexus of human relationships defining them as human/non-human, male/female, natural/artificial, technological/organic, persons/species and clean/dirty. The way meanings are associated with these materials have consequences for identity and control; of reflexivity and the experiential; of matter and modality; and form and function.
A sociology of embodiment
these organ donor recipients, but it does lead to further questions about how widespread such a contra-Cartesian belief is. The transplant recipient community is a small sample of unique individuals at the moment and perhaps only a fewer number report such alterations. As was discussed in the last chapter, the Cartesian Dualism that dominates current medical practice and thinking is one that is found more generally in society, with the modern emphasis on the brain as the materiality of self.
In this chapter, I set out to research whether embodiment is ambiguous only
Bordering intimacy is a study of how borders and dominant forms of intimacy, such as family, are central to the governance of postcolonial states such as Britain. The book explores the connected history between contemporary border regimes and the policing of family with the role of borders under European and British empires. Building upon postcolonial, decolonial and black feminist theory, the investigation centres on how colonial bordering is remade in contemporary Britain through appeals to protect, sustain and make family life. Not only was family central to the making of colonial racism but claims to family continue to remake, shore up but also hide the organisation of racialised violence in liberal states. Drawing on historical investigations, the book investigates the continuity of colonial rule in numerous areas of contemporary government – family visa regimes, the policing of sham marriages, counterterror strategies, deprivation of citizenship, policing tactics, integration policy. In doing this, the book re-theorises how we think of the connection between liberal government, race, family, borders and empire. In using Britain as a case, this opens up further insights into the international/global circulations of liberal empire and its relationship to violence.
Given the significant similarities and differences between the welfare states of Northern Europe and their reactions to the perceived 'refugee crisis' of 2015, the book focuses primarily on the three main cases of Denmark, Sweden and Germany. Placed in a wider Northern European context – and illustrated by those chapters that also discuss refugee experiences in Norway and the UK – the Danish, Swedish and German cases are the largest case studies of this edited volume. Thus, the book contributes to debates on the governance of non-citizens and the meaning of displacement, mobility and seeking asylum by providing interdisciplinary analyses of a largely overlooked region of the world, with two specific aims. First, we scrutinize the construction of the 2015 crisis as a response to the large influx of refugees, paying particular attention to the disciplinary discourses and bureaucratic structures that are associated with it. Second, we investigate refugees’ encounters with these bureaucratic structures and consider how these encounters shape hopes for building a new life after displacement. This allows us to show that the mobility of specific segments of the world’s population continues to be seen as a threat and a risk that has to be governed and controlled. Focusing on the Northern European context, our volume interrogates emerging policies and discourses as well as the lived experiences of bureaucratization from the perspective of individuals who find themselves the very objects of bureaucracies.
Animal, mechanical and me: Technologies that alter subjectivity
implantable medical devices) and becoming an ‘everyday cyborg’?
Consider why bodily modifications alter subjectivity, especially to the inside of the human body, and whether it is dependent on the origin of organs and devices.
Finally, bring social science research into dialogue with biomedical and philosophical understandings of the connection between persons and their bodies, reflecting on this relationship as a fluid and dynamic experience whereby embodiment is always ambiguous.
I will be drawing on various philosophical and sociological theories about the
despite the modern era’s emphasis on the brain as the location of self noted throughout this book. This appears to confirm the ‘ambiguity of embodiment’ discussed elsewhere that personal identity is more embodied, relational and dynamic and that individuals are not reducible to their brains, despite the necessity of having one (Lipsman and Glannon, 2012 , Gardner, 2013 , Kraemer, 2013 , Gilbert, 2017 , Gardner and Warren, 2019 , Gardner et al., 2019 ).
In terms of smart functionality, cochlear implants (CIs) can provide a sense of sound to those who are
, the English were well placed to exploit long-distance trade as a specialism. In the early decades, officials of the English East India Company adopted
the strategy of negotiating commercial privileges rather than using force as
the first resort in the manner of the Portuguese. In many ways they carried the authority of the empire in their person. As ‘agents of empire’ they
personified an implicit imperium. Thomas Raffles exemplified the embodiment
of personal and imperial authority in his deal-making strategy in Singapore
). Western modernity seemed to the Japanese to be the embodiment of
‘civilisation’ as a mode of being juxtaposed to the moral value attributed to the
religious heritage of Asian civilisations (Gluck, 2011). In the early years, ‘being
civilised’ meant superficially following Western etiquette, fashions and speech.
Many Japanese came to believe that the deeper attributes of Western modernities could be carefully modified. Encounters with the conceptual apparatus of
Western thought encouraged this understanding. As with other concepts that
entered East Asia in wider