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Setting the standards for disability in the interwar period.

Measuring difference, numbering normal provides a detailed study of the technological construction of disability by examining how the audiometer and spirometer were used to create numerical proxies for invisible and inarticulable experiences. Measurements, and their manipulation, have been underestimated as crucial historical forces motivating and guiding the way we think about disability. Using measurement technology as a lens, this book draws together several existing discussions on disability, healthcare, medical practice, embodiment and emerging medical and scientific technologies at the turn of the twentieth century. As such, this work connects several important and usually separate academic subject areas and historical specialisms. The standards embedded in instrumentation created strict but ultimately arbitrary thresholds of normalcy and abnormalcy. Considering these standards from a long historical perspective reveals how these dividing lines shifted when pushed. The central thesis of this book is that health measurements are given artificial authority if they are particularly amenable to calculability and easy measurement. These measurement processes were perpetuated and perfected in the interwar years in Britain as the previously invisible limits of the body were made visible and measurable. Determination to consider body processes as quantifiable was driven by the need to compensate for disability occasioned by warfare or industry. This focus thus draws attention to the biopower associated with systems, which has emerged as a central area of concern for modern healthcare in the second decade of the twenty-first century.

Open Access (free)
Coreen Anne McGuire

dangerous drug use. We have almost no understanding of how usage of such devices impacts on individual interoception, embodiment, anxiety or cognition of sensation. Related concerns are growing about how the data these devices generate will be stored and used in the future, especially by the state. The kind of data embedded in spirometric standards and in the artificial ear was recoverable and available in archives, but this is unlikely to be the case in the context of private commercial companies used in nationalised contexts. Indeed, an influential think tank has

in Measuring difference, numbering normal
Open Access (free)
Coreen Anne McGuire

. , ‘ Mapping the Margins: Intersectionality, Identity, Politics, and Violence against Women of Color ’, Stanford Law Review , 43 : 6 ( 1991 ), 1241 – 1299 , and for more of my analysis using this framework see Chapter 5 . 58 Quoted in Shakespeare , T. , ‘ Nasty, Brutish, and Short? On the Predicament of Disability and Embodiment ’, in J. E. Bickenback , F. Felder and B. Schmitz (eds), Disability and the Good Human Life ( Cambridge : Cambridge University Press , 2014 ), pp. 93 – 112 , p. 95. 59 Daniels , N. , ‘ Normal Functioning and the

in Measuring difference, numbering normal
Coreen Anne McGuire

would have further complicated adding extra apparatus. 96 W. G. Luxton, Bristol Sectional Engineer, to the District Manager, 5 August 1936. BTA, POST 33/1491C. 97 Arapostathis and Gooday, Patently Contestable , pp. 106–110. 98 Ibid., p. 107. 99 Ibid., p. 110. 100 Letter from W. G. Luxton, Sectional Engineer, to the Superintending Engineer, 28 September 1936. BTA, POST 33/1491C. 101 Fourcade , M. , ‘ The Problem of Embodiment in the Sociology of Knowledge: Afterword to the Special Issue on Knowledge in Practice ’, Qualitative Sociology , 33 : 4

in Measuring difference, numbering normal
Emergency nursing in the Indian Mutiny
Sam Goodman

accepted out of necessity. The memsahibs of India thus become an inert embodiment of what the Army and East India Company were fighting for throughout the remainder of the rebellion: the idealised mothers, dutiful wives and ladies of colonial India, and of the wider Empire. As much as these diaries are a testament to the efforts of lady amateurs, they remain also a consolidation of the position of the gentleman professional. Notes  1 Throughout the chapter, the events of 1857 are largely referred to as the Indian Mutiny, not for any political or ideological reason, but

in Colonial caring
Dorothy Porter

creativity and Parkinson's Disease have generated a counterculture represented in the narratives articulated by patients, according to which ontological stasis is replaced with emergence, changing the relationship between embodiment and becoming. As a result, sufferers have dispersed the materiality of disability by creating the meaning of shifting embodiments for themselves and others: for example by engaging, expressing and disseminating the contradictions of dread and subliminal exquisiteness through artistic work, thereby unfolding the consequences of the misfolding

in Balancing the self
Jane Brooks

embedded in the hospital services of nineteenth-­century Britain, the engagement with patient hygiene meant that in the embodiment of the single, female nurse, ‘women’s purity and impurity were expressed at once morally and physically’.34 Nurses were not only agents of reform, but also potentially suspect. In order to maintain a level of propriety they were advised to be quiet about the more unpleasant aspects of their work.35 For, as Leonore Davidoff argued, those who engaged in ‘dirty work’ not only became defiled by the association with dirt, but also could themselves

in Negotiating nursing
Disease, conflict and nursing in the British Empire, 1880–1914
Angharad Fletcher

was unmarried (as were all nurses of her time) and dedicated to her profession, and early photographs are constructed depictions delineating her embodiment of idealised nursing qualities, including bravery, selfless commitment and education, qualities that were subsequently among those of the quintessential Australian combatant immortalised in the Hall of Memory at the Australian War Memorial. Her 42 Imperial sisters in Hong Kong perpetual association with the development of Antipodean nursing is understandable. She was trained in Australia, dedicated her

in Colonial caring
Natasha Feiner

crew were also included in the regulatory framework described in the second part of this chapter. 17 R. Hayward, ‘Busman's stomach and the embodiment of modernity’, Contemporary British History , 31:1 (2017), 1–23. 18 C. Sirrs, ‘Accidents and apathy: the construction of the “Robens philosophy” of

in Balancing the self
Open Access (free)
Health as moral economy in the long nineteenth century
Christopher Hamlin

heatstroke are invisible in histories of medicine and public health), ‘I'm tired’, ‘I'm sad’, or ‘I'm afraid.’ A phenomenologist's perspective may help, but the issue ultimately is an acceptance of embodiment: ‘experience’ should open a door to explaining, not merely to explaining away. Notes 1 C. E. Rosenberg, ‘The tyranny of diagnosis: specific entities and individual experience’, The Millbank Quarterly , 80 (2002), 237

in Progress and pathology