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The change in mentality
Simha Goldin

heart of Judaism—the Talmud. He Goldin, Apostasy and Jewish identity.indd 120 20/08/2014 12:34:47 Conclusions: The change in mentality 121 deliberately ignored the usual Christian direction of theological debate with the principles of Judaism, and the attempt to achieve a theological victory in polemics, directing his arrows against what he saw as the embodiment of the very soul of the Jewish people. It is that which he wishes to harm—and does. And indeed, at the end of the thirteenth century, when R. Meir ben Baruch of Rothenburg attempted to initiate an ‘Exodus

in Apostasy and Jewish identity in High Middle Ages Northern Europe
S.J. Barnett

ecclésiastiques, hardly the embodiment of a new socio-political force, but clear in its understanding of public opinion as tribunal. As the editors of the Nouvelles ecclésiastiques wrote in January 1732, ‘[t]he public is a judge that they [King and government] have been unable to corrupt’.9 As we have seen, in the struggle against Unigenitus, the political balance between ruler and ruled had been perceptibly shifting since 1715. The situation in the 1750s could be described by contemporaries as a novelty because that decade marked the high point of that struggle in which the

in The Enlightenment and religion
Simha Goldin

himself prays against the Christians in order to help the Jews who were being forced by them to become baptized.26 The Jewish sources go on to reject the Christian notion that all biblical references to purification by water are an allusion to baptism, as interpreted by Jesus. First, they are careful to reject this idea on a theological basis, pointing out that it does not even make any sense. Second, they use a contemptuous tone towards this explicitly Christian symbol, transforming it from an embodiment of grace, pity, and new life to a representation of larceny

in Apostasy and Jewish identity in High Middle Ages Northern Europe
Duncan Sayer

) concept of creative entanglement. However, contra Ingold, the material form is not itself an agent of this entanglement (Ingold, 2010 : 12). Instead, embodiment is a creation of cohesive behaviours: individuals use this material culture in communication – signalling shared fraternity and reinforcing social structures. As described here, shoes are similar to all apparel, including weapons or jewellery, which are more than badges or props in social performances. They are also a metaphor for other aesthetic and physical qualities which enhance or define aspects of

in Early Anglo-Saxon cemeteries
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The gendering of witchcraft
Lara Apps and Andrew Gow

.In her book The Color of Angels: Cosmology, Gender and the Aesthetic Imagination , Constance Classen explores the embodiment of gender codes and hierarchies through the senses. 44 According to Classen, ‘along with being assigned different sensory qualities’, such as ‘hot’ or ‘cold’, ‘men and women were associated with different sensory domains.’ At a fundamental level, women were associated with the physical body and the

in Male witches in early modern Europe
Hans Peter Broedel

body, the threats and the anxieties posed by human sexuality. Categorizing witches as embodiments of sinful female sexuality provided the authors with a useful means to control the unbridled sexuality of women that led to misfortune and disaster.63 As Guido Ruggiero puts it, witches were “sexual outsiders,” whose activities, from the perspective of the dominant culture, threatened the natural order of society with the wrath of God.64 Faced with the possibility of another Sodom, Institoris and Sprenger defined witchcraft so as to localize the responsibility for sexual

in The <i>Malleus Maleficarum</i> and the construction of witchcraft
Sabina Magliocco

folkloric witch is fictional; she represents an embodiment of rural people’s worst fears, and her actions do not correspond to any real folk practices documented by ethnographers. Nevertheless, the presence of this character in Italian folklore from all regions indicates the ambivalent feelings villagers had towards those who practised traditional magic and who just might be dangerous streghe . Il Malocchio, or the evil eye, and

in Witchcraft Continued
Hans Peter Broedel

” occupied very similar conceptual spaces in the minds of clerical authorities. Cannibalism is, of course, a devastating inversion of social norms, and the witch, like the heretic, was constructed to be the embodiment of anti-social vice and deviance: “Hence the inverted witch stereotype includes all manner of sexual perversion, incest, and the ultimate denial of human sociability and commensality – cannibalism.”27 But cannibalism is also a powerful sign, and an indicator of contact with the supernatural: the image of “cannibalism,” provides, “a device through which the

in The <i>Malleus Maleficarum</i> and the construction of witchcraft