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Impact of structural tensions and thresholds
Eşref Aksu

. Towards double ‘peaks’: superpower rivalry and decolonisation/non-alignment In the immediate aftermath of World War II, the arrangements for a new world order reflected a multipolar power configuration, the embodiment of which can be found in the Security Council. In economic terms, the United States was clearly the dominant source of power. 1 Yet politically, the colonial powers, the Soviet Union

in The United Nations, intra-state peacekeeping and normative change
Paul Latawski and Martin A. Smith

was the institutional embodiment of a broad Atlantic Community seemed to be the best means of waylaying this negative possibility. One of the first arguments along these lines appeared in The Economist in February 1955. Its editorial comments offered an early definition of what actually constituted the community: It is a group of countries that share certain

in The Kosovo crisis and the evolution of post-Cold War European security
Alexis Heraclides and Ada Dialla

inertia one must bear in mind that for thousands of years and well into the nineteenth century the Chinese held a Sinocentric concept of the world. They regarded their country as the centre of the world, the ‘Middle Kingdom’, the Celestial Empire under the ‘Son of Heaven’ (the Emperor) as a universal ruler, reigning over the entire world. The Middle Kingdom was the quintessential country of virtue, the embodiment of civilization, indeed the only civilized country, hence

in Humanitarian intervention in the long nineteenth century
The analytical framework
Eşref Aksu

. The Charter itself, however, is the embodiment or, to be more precise, the institutionalisation, of those ideas. The UN, by virtue of its Charter, is an institution, in that it ‘involves persistent and connected sets of rules that prescribe behaviour, roles, constrain activity, and shape expectations’. 30 The UN, furthermore, is the/an institution of a particular historical structure. The

in The United Nations, intra-state peacekeeping and normative change
Evolution of the normative basis
Eşref Aksu

security’, and subsequently found its way to the normative basis of intra-state peacekeeping in the early 1960s. Korea was the first and only embodiment of the consensual ‘collective security’ idea in the Cold War period. That the Soviet bloc strongly opposed the American-led UN action, while of significance politically and of explanatory value for subsequent UN inaction in several instances, is normatively

in The United Nations, intra-state peacekeeping and normative change
A veiled threat
Thomas J. Butko

ineffectual rule of the PLO. In the current environment, Hamas ’ alternative nature is most clearly demonstrated by its rejection of the Oslo process and its embodiment as its principal opponent. In terms of support, Hamas continues to garner most of its popular backing when the peace process stalls and is perceived as providing most Palestinians with few, if any, tangible benefits. This pattern can be

in Redefining security in the Middle East