). It is not
surprising that the history of Classical archaeology maps onto geopolitics. After all, with their shared claims to universality, Classics and
empire have much in common (Porter, 2006; Bradley, 2010); Classical
materials – like so many other desirable goods – gravitate toward power.
Of course, Classics has never been the sole provenance of the powerful. Even the geopolitically ‘marginal’ have sought their share of
Classical culture (see Stephens and Vasunia, 2010), to say nothing of
so-called ‘source’ nations such as Greece and Italy (see Hamilakis, 2007
; Horel, 2011: 16–17; Teichner, 2015: 7). At the age of 14 he
started training as an illustrator at the studio of the famous illustrator
Vincenz Grimm (1800–72) in Pest. Grimm was a very important figure
in Hungarian artistic circles of the time – he was the founder of the
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Pest Art Society (Pesti műegylet) – and, likewise, close friend to numerous politicians and scholars in the Habsburg Empire (Horel, 2011:
17; Timotijević, 2011: 94). As a result, while
environment, values, and institutions (e.g. Kennedy 1987 ; Tainter 1988 ; Diamond 2005 ; Acemoglu & Robinson 2012 ).
How and why could once powerful civilisations collapse? Examples that have exerted fascination include Ancient Rome, the Maya in Central America, Angkor in Cambodia, the Norse settlements on Greenland, Easter Island, the British Empire, and the USSR. In our own time, there is a discussion about whether the US is entering a phase of decline and fall. Will China be the new superpower instead?
Ruins and wrecks are material icons of decline and decay. The
to legitimise a political or military agenda – in the colonisation of Africa, in the reuse of the Roman Empire by Italian fascism, in the conduct of Nazi Germany in Eastern Europe, in Saddam Hussein’s Iraq, and in the construction of a common Europe; how heritage has deliberately been destroyed to weaken identities in war zones in the Balkans, Afghanistan, Mali, and Syria; how treasures have been moved from the periphery of the colonies to central museums in the West; and how the past is used commercially and is being worn down by mass tourism. The list could be
. Mihajlović’s discussion of Kanitz and his impact
on Serbian archaeology focuses on the latter’s role as the central node
of a complicated archaeological network. Despite having little, if any,
formal training, Kanitz has been called the ‘Columbus of the Balkans’
and his archaeological work continues to exert considerable authority
over modern studies of Roman Serbia. Mihajlović argues that, having
been subjected to the frontier colonialism of the Austro-Hungarian
Empire, Kanitz deliberately set out to create a network of people from
various political, academic, ethnic and
small-scale societies. As such, the division between apparently ‘pragmatic’ and more ‘ritualised’ explanations of bog body violence will become blurred. Instead, the notion of the generative affect of violent performance will be critically discussed within the notion of both a ‘sacrificial’ and a ‘destructive’ economy (after Fontijn 2020 ). It will also critically consider how these practices might have been shaped and transformed anew by the Roman Empire, in those countries facing conquest and occupation, as well as those on the edge of this colonial ‘ripple effect
examples of preservation can also be documented in the Roman Empire. For instance, attempts were made in the fourth and fifth centuries to regulate the use of monuments as quarries for spolia ; this serves as evidence that extensive destruction occurred. The Ostrogoth king Theodoric regretted the destruction in Rome, but he himself imported spolia for his construction projects in Ravenna in around the year 500 (Schnapp 1993 (French): 83f; 1996 (English): 83; Fabricius Hansen 2003 : 108ff, 157, 238f).
In 1162, the Roman Senate laid down the death penalty and loss
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archaeologists remained in force for decades and was further intensified
during the Fascist regime, when archaeology became one of the main
vehicles of Mussolini’s pretended rebirth of the Roman Empire (Bourdin
and Nicoud, 2013; cf. Palombi, 2006).
With the fall of the regime in 1943 and the subsequent liberation
of Italy in 1945, this attitude started to change. In the years following
the war, many members of the Italian intellectual and academic community
Room 50, which spans the later prehistory of Britain. Lindow Man is now appropriately positioned at the threshold of transition into the Roman gallery, offering a last glance at the people conquered by Rome, before we are immersed in the weaponry, religious icons, dining sets and mosaics of that extraordinary empire. He is juxtaposed (across the throughfare) with another peri-Conquest body: the cremated remains from the Welwyn burial. Both men saw the coming of Rome’s government and army, one in the south (an elite figure, benefitting from trade and sociopolitical
impressive serving and body-ornament pieces that evoke a new era of diacritical display and hospitality, drawn in part from the very empire that haunted its borders.
In Ireland, the Ballyedmond cauldron has a lower sheet-bronze base topped by riveted plates to create a capacious vessel, capable of being heated: it is old and patched with over thirty repairs of decorative, punched and incised plaques, inside and out (Raftery 1994 , fig. 64b; Joy 2014b : 347). Cauldrons from Urlingford, the bog of Allen and Ballymoney are also heavily repaired (Joy 2014b : 356 and 349