, D. T. , Sky as Frontier: Adventure, Aviation, and Empire ( College Station : Texas A&M University Press , 2004 ), p. 41 .
27 Ibid. Statistically, Deaf people are very safe drivers, and there is some evidence suggesting this in linked to superior peripheral vision. See Codina , C. , Pascalis , O. , Mody , C. , Toomey , P. , et al., ‘ Visual Advantage in Deaf Adults Linked to Retinal Changes ’, PLoS ONE , 6 : 6 ( 2011 ), 1 – 8 .
28 Dreyer, ‘Investigations on the Normal Vital Capacity’, p. 227.
29 Dreyer , G. , The Assessment of Physical
mechanical objectivity during the interwar years occurred alongside a crucial change in the tone of wider ideological thinking about society in Britain. While industrialising Victorian Britain was characterised by broad social and cultural confidence in empire and industry, the interwar years featured growing pessimism and fears of British decline and degeneration, alongside the apparent rise ‘of the survival of the unfittest’. 24 The 1904 Committee on Physical Deterioration was set up to explore how realistic these fears were and, while it found no evidence of overall
Disease, conflict and nursing in the British Empire, 1880–1914
Imperial sisters in Hong Kong:
disease, conflict and nursing in the
British Empire, 1880–1914
British nurses, much like those enlisted in the colonial or military
services, frequently circulated within the Empire as a professional
necessity, often in response to the development of perceived crisis
in the form of conflicts or disease outbreaks, prompting reciprocally
shaping encounters between individuals within the various colonial
outposts. More traditional approaches to the history of nursing are
enclavist in the sense that they have
Nursing and medical records in the Imperial War in Ethiopia (1935–36)
Anna La Torre, Giancarlo Celeri Bellotti, and Cecilia Sironi
A sample of Italian Fascist
colonialism: nursing and medical
records in the Imperial War in
Anna La Torre, Giancarlo Celeri Bellotti and Cecilia Sironi
Introduction: historical background
The Italo-Ethiopian War (also known as the Abyssinian War or the
Second Italo-Ethiopian War) refers to an armed conflict waged by
Italy during Mussolini’s regime against the Empire of Ethiopia in
1935, which led to the proclamation of Africa Orientale Italiana
(Italian East Africa) in 1936.2 The history of Italian colonialism
started approximately fifty
The social exploits and behaviour of
nurses during the Anglo-Boer War,
During the Second Anglo-Boer War, two key watchwords associated with serving nurses were ‘duty’ and ‘respectability’.2 At the commencement of war, women from across the Empire, including trained
nurses, saw the opportunity to travel to South Africa to experience
war and work alongside men as their equals, caught up in a patriotic fervour to defend and expand the Queen’s lands. The war, which
resulted from years of ambitious encounters over gold deposits,
Cancer, modernity, and decline in fin-de-siècle Britain
, less decadent diet was likely to protect against the disease.
Cancer – then as now – was conceptualised as a disease of civilisation, an unintended consequence of progress. Anxiety over the perceived increase of cancer was provoked in part by research that seemed to suggest the epidemic was not confined to Western or so-called ‘developed’ nations. Doctors across the British Empire were, at the end of the nineteenth century, engaged in a large-scale evidence-gathering mission. Data and anecdotal evidence was
Colonial Caring covers over a century of colonial nursing by nurses from a wide range of countries including: Denmark, Britain, USA, Holland and Italy; with the colonised countries including South Africa, Australia, New Zealand, Ethiopia, Nigeria, India, Indonesia (Dutch East Indies) and the Danish West Indies. It presents unique perspectives from which to interrogate colonialism and post-colonialism including aspects of race, cultural difference and implications of warfare and politics upon nursing. Viewing nursing’s development under colonial and post-colonial rule reveals different faces of a profession that superficially may appear to be consistent and coherent, yet in reality is constantly reinventing itself. Considering such areas as transnational relationships, class, gender, race and politics, this book aims to present current work in progress within the field, to better understand the complex entanglements in nursing’s development as it was imagined and practised in local imperial, colonial and post-colonial contexts. Taking a chronologically-based structure, early chapters examine nursing in situations of conflict in the post-Crimean period from the Indian Rebellion to the Anglo-Boer War. Recruitment, professionalisation of nursing and of military nursing in particular, are therefore considered before moving deeper into the twentieth century reflecting upon later periods of colonialism in which religion and humanitarianism become more central. Drawing from a wide range of sources from official documents to diaries, memoirs and oral sources, and using a variety of methodologies including qualitative and quantitative approaches, the book represents ground-breaking work.
In Self-Culture and the Perfection of Character ( 1847 ), the American phrenologist, Orson Fowler, offered phrenology as a remedy for those who ‘are daily and earnestly inquiring –“How can I REMEDY my defects? By what MEANS can I increase my deficient organs, and diminish or regulate those that are too large? … How can I make my children better?”’
Orson and his brother, Lorenzo, founded a phrenological and publishing empire in mid-nineteenth-century America that revitalised and popularised
worked in colonial and post-colonial settings did so in a search for adventure; some for humanitarian reasons; some were thrust into nursing out of necessity. Most struggled
under adverse physical conditions, often with limited resources.
Though some were closely supervised, others found themselves willing or unwilling independent healthcare providers with a limited
or non-existent support network. All were sent as ambassadors of
Western medicine and their presence was vital in maintaining the
strength of empire. During war, they cared for the sick and wounded
Contextualising colonial and post-colonial nursing
Helen Sweet and Sue Hawkins
a number of colonial and post-colonial settings.
Whilst we have taken pains to select chapters that incorporate
nursing provided by colonial powers across Western Europe and the
USA to make this as globally representative as possible, we are well
aware that in the ten chapters that follow we can only touch the surface of the story. By the end of the First World War, and despite the
Western nations’ ‘Scramble for Africa’4 the British Empire still covered about one quarter of the Earth’s total land area and ruled a population in excess of 500 million people. The