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Seas, oceans and civilisations
Jeremy C.A. Smith

these respective fields of scholarship. To begin with, I propose that connections across seas span a range of remarkable diversity, just as links across lands do. A typology of those connections can discern features of oceanic, portal or thalassic, and islander-​based civilisations in their orientation (Mazlish, 2004: 21–​41; Murphy, 2001; Paine, 2013) –​an orientation that is as decidedly civilisational in character as any of the land-​based empires. Yet, the orientations of oceanic, portal and islander civilisations have not received the attention that they should

in Debating civilisations
Alexis Heraclides and Ada Dialla

those of European extraction, and treaties with states outside Europe (and America) were unequal, with the sovereignty and independence of the Ottoman Empire, China, Siam, Persia and Japan thereby limited. 13 Civilization linked with progress ‘became a scale by which the countries of the world were categorized into “civilized”, barbarous and savage spheres’, 14 a distinction adhered to by Montesquieu in The Spirit of the Laws , 15 which was common among

in Humanitarian intervention in the long nineteenth century
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Identities and incitements
Saurabh Dube

) of social worlds. These are issues to which I shall return. The point now is that the account ahead explores the elaborations of identities within historical anthropology, including postcolonial perspectives and subaltern approaches. In these domains, identities have been articulated as part of critical considerations, at once theoretical and empirical, not only of colony and community and empire and nation, but also of

in Subjects of modernity
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Kevin Harrison and Tony Boyd

interests. Then the psychological appeal of nationalism is examined, as is its impact on international politics, and on empires and multi-national states. Finally, we offer a critique of nationalism and some reflections on its possible future. POINTS TO CONSIDER Is nationalism anything more than extreme patriotism? How would you define a ‘nation’? Is nationalism an ideology of the left or the

in Understanding political ideas and movements
Open Access (free)
Jeremy C.A. Smith

’s answer is that they do and with greater velocity in and through the centres of culture and knowledge. We can say the results of his historical sociology of the spread of knowledge are replicated in other zones outside the scope of his study –​specifically oceanic, coastal and new world connections. My work in Chapters 6, 7 and 8 on the Pacific, Latin America and Japan suggest as much also. In looking at the fourth dimension in Chapter 4, I focus on the differentiation of empire and civilisation in historical processes of communication and transformation of

in Debating civilisations
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Time and space
Saurabh Dube

fraught linkages underlay critical articulations of modernity, evangelism, and empire. Third and finally, the study explores wide-ranging expressions of community and nation in the wake of conversion. These underscore controversial issues of the “majority” and the “minority,” politics and religion, and the citizen and the convert, especially in independent India. These processes each appear molded by

in Subjects of modernity
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Interrogating civilisational analysis in a global age

Contemporary civilisational analysis has emerged in the post-Cold War period as a forming but already controversial field of scholarship. This book focuses on the scholarship produced in this field since the 1970s. It begins with anthropological axioms posited by Ibn Khaldun, Simon Bolivar and George Pachymeres. Three conceptual images of civilisations are prominent in the field. First, civilisations are conceived as socio-cultural units, entities or blocs in an 'integrationist' image. They emerge out of long-term uneven historical processes. Finally, in a 'relational' image civilisations are believed to gain definition and institute developmental patterns through inter-societal and inter-cultural encounters. The book traces the history of semantic developments of the notions of 'civilisation' and 'civilisations' coextensive with the expansion of Europe's empires and consubstantial with colonialism. Early modernities are more important in the long formation of capitalism. Outlining the conceptual framework of inter-civilisational engagement, the book analytically plots the ties instituted by human imaginaries across four dimensions of inter-civilisational engagement. It also interrogates the relationship between oceans, seas and civilisations. Oceanian civilisation exhibits patterns of deep engagement and connection. Though damaged, Pacific cultures have invoked their own counter-imaginary in closer proximity to past islander experiences. Collective memory provides resources for coping with critical issues. The book also explores Latin American and Japanese experiences that shed light on the engagement of civilisations, applying the model of inter-civilisational engagement to modern perspectives in culture and the arts, politics, theology and political economy.

Imaginaries, power, connected worlds
Jeremy C.A. Smith

entirety by the modes and dynamics of power. There is momentous evidence establishing engagement across all four dimensions in human history and plenty to suggest that more could be unearthed with further investigation, and indeed will be. Comparative sociology and world history has focused primarily on land-​based civilisations. The civilisational perspectives on oceanic and seafaring empires featured in the next chapter show a different complexion of inter-​civilisational engagement and thus they are considered also as zones of engagement. Colonists, pilgrims

in Debating civilisations
Alexis Heraclides and Ada Dialla

days of its ‘golden age’, trailed behind the other Western countries. Yet all Spaniards were united by the memory of a glorious past, now symbolized by the possession of Cuba (the island had been claimed by Columbus for Spain in his very first voyage, of 1492). Cuba and the immense overseas empire were regarded as God’s gift to Spain for the Reconquista (the re-conquest) of Christian Spain from the Muslims and an integral part of the Spanish nation. 12

in Humanitarian intervention in the long nineteenth century
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A bird’s eye view of intervention with emphasis on Britain, 1875–78
Alexis Heraclides and Ada Dialla

against the Ottoman Empire (June–July 1876). By the mid-1870s the debate over humanitarian intervention was in full swing, with over forty publicists participating, among whom a two-thirds majority supported intervention. The 1850s and 1860s had seen some of the seminal advocacies of the new doctrine: those by Phillimore, Fiore and Bluntschli. In the 1870s (before and during the Balkan crisis) there followed those by Arntz, Rolin-Jaequemyns and Martens. The

in Humanitarian intervention in the long nineteenth century