Search results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 17 items for :

  • Manchester Religious Studies x
Clear All
Thomas D. Frazel and Ralph Keen

the principle of Augustine. Meanwhile nevertheless the Empires and wealth of the Bishops were growing, and just as the age of the Titans followed, profane and uneducated men reign in the Church, some of whom had been refined in the arts of the Roman court or in the doctrine of the law court. So Dominicans and Franciscans arose, who, when they saw the luxury and Melanchthon on Luther 25 wealth of the Bishops, loathed profane morals, set up a simpler way of life and shut themselves up as if in the jails of discipline. But at first their inexperience increased the

in Luther’s lives
Ralph Keen

problems in religious matters. But the stability of his secular realm was also at stake. The Diet of Augsburg in 1530 was a decisive moment for the Protestant interests, clerical and political alike. The Confession presented by Melanchthon represented both a comprehensive statement of Wittenberg theology and a challenge to the Empire on behalf of the Protestant territories. Rather than suppressing the Reformation, the Diet helped consolidate the movement, as the Confession became a statement to which more and more of the German nobility subscribed.11 With the growth of

in Luther’s lives
Open Access (free)
Alison Rowlands

Holy Roman Empire. This meant that Rothenburg was autonomous, its city council subject to no higher authority other than that of the Holy Roman Emperor himself. As a result, the sixteen-member city council, constituted as the criminal court for Rothenburg and its rural hinterland, had the right to try all crimes committed by its subjects or on its territory, including cases of witchcraft. From the mid-sixteenth century the council appointed university-educated jurists to municipal posts and drew on their advice in particularly problematic legal cases, although the

in Witchcraft narratives in Germany
Open Access (free)
An introduction to his life and work
Ralph Keen

disagreement, in some point or another, with all the others. In contrast, his publications of Catholic works both ancient and recent are intended to show that the Roman church has taught the same essentials over time and is uniform in its teachings in the sixteenth century. With the Diet of Augsburg Cochlaeus shifts his dominant theme. Cochlaeus was present at the Diet, and helped draft the Response that was suppressed on orders of the Emperor for being too harsh.22 If the Diet of Worms revealed Luther to be an obstinate heretic, Augsburg exposed the danger to the Empire

in Luther’s lives
Elizabeth Vandiver and Ralph Keen

pious relief. Moreover, there was at that time among the ecclesiastical Prelates of Germany a most eminent man, both for the height of his dignity and the splendor of his birth, the Most Reverend Father and Most Illustrious Prince Albert, the Archbishop of Mainz and Magdeburg, Priest and Cardinal of the Holy Roman Church, Primate of Germany, and Elector Prince of the Holy Roman Empire, Margrave of Brandenburg, etc.9 Therefore, Pope Leo X laid a special commission on him for the business of publishing the indulgences in Germany. And following the advice and opinion of

in Luther’s lives
Open Access (free)
Roman ‘tyranny’ and radical Catholic opposition
S.J. Barnett

thought. It emerged, however, not against the ‘tyranny’of authoritarian rulers, but rather against the old regime in the form of what was understood as the antichristian medieval theocracy of the Papal States and the despotic rule of the popes over their European Church empire. Much of the politico-religious polemic of those decades, as in the French and English experience, was, in the general sense, hardly novel. In this sense the polemic was traditional, but not at all the result of any tradition which finally, as in Gay’s view, regained its ‘nerve’,5 but rather the

in The Enlightenment and religion
S.J. Barnett

those facts or generalizations about their intellectual formation which we would today often consider relevant and important. Edward Gibbon, for example, never admits that in his Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire (1776–81) the outline of his treatment of the medieval Church is in fact mundane, a rehash of Protestant anticlerical positions dating back to the sixteenth century.42 This tendency for writers to ‘overlook’ their own formative intellectual experiences or milieux can be accompanied by a willingness to ignore and even misrepresent the influences at work in

in The Enlightenment and religion
A case study in the construction of a myth
S.J. Barnett

arguments and language register are clearly those of a dissenting Protestant and, like Howard’s, go far beyond any dissimulation or platitudes necessary to placate or mislead a censor. He believes Satan has inflamed the heart of humanity with ‘self-love’ and destroyed ‘the Empire which Heaven had set up in his soul, which was an empire of Reason and Law’. Thus some Christian teachers do ‘contaminate the Doctrine of Christ by their own Inventions, and the Doctrines of Devils’. These antichristians have ‘opposed [themselves] to the Lord’s Anointed, i.e. to Christ’. Dennis

in The Enlightenment and religion
Open Access (free)
Simha Goldin

half of the fourth century, the proselytes indeed constituted a problem. He was evidently exposed in Palestine to the fact that, after the Roman empire became Christian, heavy punishments were imposed upon those who converted to Judaism, to the extent of being sentenced to execution.6 This aphorism continued to echo throughout the history of Judaism, and its various interpretations reflect the essentially suspicious attitude towards the newcomer. Rashi, at the end of the eleventh century, explains the term ‘sore’ by stating that proselytes Goldin, Apostasy and

in Apostasy and Jewish identity in High Middle Ages Northern Europe
S.J. Barnett

Enlightenment France, that is to say constituting a powerful public sphere. Baker and Echeverria argued that the early 1770s – when Louis XV made his final play to cow his rebellious parlements by abolishing them (the Maupeou revolution) – was the period when public opinion as a political force was born. Louis’s action brought forth a tidal wave of popular and learned literature appealing to the nation against despotism. McManners agrees that this ‘brought the empire of “public” opinion to general acceptance, not only by its force and reverberation, but by its direct

in The Enlightenment and religion