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The Rotuli de Dominabus et Pueris et Puellis de XII Comitatibus of 1185
Susan M. Johns

facilitate analysis of the broader contexts of noblewomen’s lives. Traditional and empirical historians have generally studied the Rotuli de Dominabus in the context of debates about the nature of royal lordship in the late twelfth century, examining, for example, the character of Angevin government and reform. This has led to an emphasis on the effectiveness or otherwise of Henry II’s government, which has been analysed either narrowly in England or in the wider context of the nature of the Angevin empire. Similarly the roots of Magna Carta have been traced to the reign

in Noblewomen, aristocracy and power in the twelfth-century Anglo-Norman realm
Open Access (free)
Susan M. Johns

affected female sigillographic practice, since the appearance of non-noble women’s seals appears contemporarily in both regions of the Angevin empire.178 Although Scotland was politically independent of the Angevin empire there was cultural symbiosis, with evidence that women were using seals in the mid-twelfth century, since Isabella, the wife of William Wallace, co-sealed a charter with him c. 1160.179 In the mid-twelfth century Margaret duchess of Brittany, the wife of Conan duke of Brittany (d. 1171) and sister of William the Lion, sealed a grant of land in Forset

in Noblewomen, aristocracy and power in the twelfth-century Anglo-Norman realm
Open Access (free)
Simha Goldin

half of the fourth century, the proselytes indeed constituted a problem. He was evidently exposed in Palestine to the fact that, after the Roman empire became Christian, heavy punishments were imposed upon those who converted to Judaism, to the extent of being sentenced to execution.6 This aphorism continued to echo throughout the history of Judaism, and its various interpretations reflect the essentially suspicious attitude towards the newcomer. Rashi, at the end of the eleventh century, explains the term ‘sore’ by stating that proselytes Goldin, Apostasy and

in Apostasy and Jewish identity in High Middle Ages Northern Europe
Open Access (free)
Simha Goldin

classical Jewish literature was often ambivalent and inconsistent in its attitude towards Jewish converts to Christianity was deeply rooted in the circumstances surrounding the development of Christianity in the first few centuries of its existence. Indeed, the Jewish attitude towards converts to Christianity differed depending on the historical period in which it arose: as a new and persecuted religion until the fourth century; as the religion of the empire, but subject to the grip of rulers and emperors until the eleventh century; and during the subsequent era, as it

in Apostasy and Jewish identity in High Middle Ages Northern Europe