since the (formal) retreat of Western empires.
As Sadeq al-Azm has noted, the Arabs and Muslims, viewing themselves as a historically great nation and bearers of God’s true religion, find it hard to accept their domination by the West ( Arab Studies Quarterly , 19:3, 1997, 124). As such, external intervention and its often damaging consequences has stimulated an on-going reaction manifested in nationalist and Islamic movements, in the rise of revisionist states, and in the attempts of regional states to assert autonomy and to restructure
) about post-war Germany. Jenning’s films have
in general been analysed within the history of the Documentary Film
Movement, tightly associated with notions of Britishness. In a sense,
this was inevitable, since its origins lay in powerful British
institutions of the 1930s and 1940s, such as the Empire Marketing Board
(EMB), the General Post Office (GPO), and the Crown Film Unit. However,
after the Second
Television and the politics of British humanitarianism
( Abingdon : Routledge , 2015 ), pp. 76 – 91 .
The historiography of humanitarianism in
particular has been flourishing in recent years. Michael Barnett’s
historical overview remains a seminal publication: Empire of
Humanity: A History of Humanitarianism (Ithaca: Cornell
University Press, 2011). See also Kevin O’Sullivan et al
Present ’, in M. Barnett and T. Weiss (eds), Humanitarianism
in Question: Politics, Power, Ethics ( Ithaca : Cornell University Press ,
2008 ), pp. 1 – 48 . For an authoritative account
of the development of humanitarianism since the nineteenth century, see
M. Barnett , Empire
of Humanity: A History of Humanitarianism ( Ithaca and London : Cornell
University Press , 2013 ). For
M . Barnett , Empire of Humanity: A History of
Humanitarianism ( Ithaca :
Cornell University Press , 2011 ), p. 105 .
Barnett, Empire of Humanity , p. 108.
Tales of the imperfect implementation of this project are legion,
often testifying to a blind faith in technology without
Cinema, news media and perception management of the Gaza
Crumbling Media War’, 23 July 2014, http://deepakumar.net/empire-bytes/telegenically-dead-israels-crumbling-media-war/.
Accessed 10 September 2016.
J. Snow, ‘The Children of Gaza’, 27 July 2014,
Accessed 10 September 2016
globalized capital, which systematically bear less frequent mention in
narratives of toxicity than the cautionary warnings from the seat of US
empire.’ 52 Chen’s
analysis encourages us to think carefully about the dangers of parenting
narratives of protection, as such narratives can easily extend into
nationalist narratives. Moreover, against the history of colonialism and
empire, the global South becomes a
tribes, peoples, notably the Arabs, lacked the defined sense of territorial identity and attachment to the land associated with peasant societies. The important exceptions, those societies with substantial peasantries – Turkey, Iran and Egypt – are those where contemporary states most closely approximate national states.
Aggravating the situation was the way the contemporary states system was imposed at the expense of a pre-existing cultural unity deriving from centuries of rule by extensive empires ruling in the name of the Islamic umma . Where
main challenges to the bellicist account is its Eurocentric narrative,
which has an ethical and a methodological dimension. The experience of African
state formation has particular specificities marked by the experience of slavery
and colonisation. As Makau Mutua notes (2001), this experience configures
different a state–subjects relation to that of Western states, which is based on
struggles embedded in the processes of industrialisation and the rise of the
The bellicist account’s ‘elision of empire’ has been the target of critiques
(Carvalho, Leira and
divisions created by the Belgians were imposed, generating resistance and conflict not only towards the Belgians but also towards those seen as their allies
(Kankwenda 2005: 282–4). Pre-existing identities were not fixed. They had as
much to do with parental ties and birth locations as with different social networks such as religious, mystical, political and economic. These changed simultaneously, depending on whether or not they had been subjected to a kingdom
or an empire (e.g., Rwanda and Buganda kingdoms or the Kongo, Luba and
Lunda empires) and whether or not they