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about health and illness was created and interpolated in colonial and post-colonial environments. 6 Indeed, the important and sometimes influential role of non-state actors in the development of psychiatric science has been increasingly recognised in more contemporary contexts, as psycho-pharmaceutical companies exert influence on both medical and state authorities, shaping the very understanding of the diseases that

in Beyond the state
Open Access (free)
Looking beyond the state

to the medical services of Empire. Chamberlain realised that without the tool of medicine, conquest and the maintenance of British supremacy would not be tenable long term, especially in the relatively unknown and climatically hostile environments that Africa presented. In order to address directly an evident need to assure the viability and sustainability of the colonial project by sending qualified doctors out

in Beyond the state
The short history of Indian doctors in the Colonial Medical Service, British East Africa

understanding the dramatic retrenchment of more than half of all Indian staff from the Colonial Medical Service lies in the actions of the PMO at that time – John Langton Gilks. Although, to be sure, Gilks was influenced by the broader social and political environment around him, it was his eventual support for the scheme which directly lay behind the fact that many Indians lost their jobs in 1922. Gilks was

in Beyond the state
Crucial collaboration, hidden conflicts

interwar era, Tanganyika, the Rhodesias and South Africa were able to provide more favourable rates of pay to Malawian assistants. In this competitive environment the Nyasaland medical services, with lower salaries and few positions, were able to hire only some mission graduates. 93 By the Second World War, the training of African nurses and midwives had become a priority for both the missions and the

in Beyond the state
The intellectual influence of non-medical research on policy and practice in the Colonial Medical Service in Tanganyika and Uganda

cultivated villages, the most productive land in Tanganyika, discomforted the officials who served the British colonial state. To them, the rotting mulch and humid shade, the high hedges and twisting paths, symbolised darkness and corruption, and provided a perfect environment for the nurturing of sexual affairs. 21 Buhaya remained one of colonial Tanganyika’s showcase districts

in Beyond the state
Open Access (free)

attempted to appropriate the dislocating experiences of urban environments. This ‘ambulatory observer shaped by a convergence of new urban spaces, technologies, and new economic and symbolic functions of images and products’ abandoned the dominant, fixed and seemingly stable perceptions of the previous century, and sought a truth ‘abstracted from any founding site or referent’. 5 This new observer attempted

in The other empire
Open Access (free)
Empire, migration and the 1928 English Schoolgirl Tour

liked Canada and I hope some of us may go back again. We are all ardent propagandists for the Great Dominion.’ 21 Gender, race, class and environment on the propaganda tour The historical record of the tour is formed by the girls’ diary entries, which were subsequently published in Echoes , a radio broadcast made upon return to Britain, and by my correspondence with two of the

in Female imperialism and national identity
Open Access (free)

’s colonies, and these officers worked to exert control over tropical environments and subject populations, through projects to control tsetse and sleeping sickness, for example. 10 By the interwar period, the belief had arisen that African peoples mismanaged their land, and so experts were deployed not just to increase outputs but also to protect the environment from the apparent pressures of over-cultivation. 11 The British government made its most concerted attempt to develop its tropical possessions after 1940. This late colonial push for development occurred

in Science at the end of empire
Organizing principles, 1900–1919

contribute to the cleaning-up of the ‘lesser races’. 20 Furthermore, it was believed that racial improvement could be brought about by improved environmental immersion. 21 Geographers such as Ellsworth Huntington and Griffith Taylor promoted the idea that the character of a race was influenced by physical environment, natural selection and historical development. 22

in Female imperialism and national identity

privileged access to the cultural and physical environment inhabited by the poor. These writers lived amongst, conversed with and moved around the metropolitan poor to produce an impressive range of tracts, articles and books that were widely disseminated and read. The more popular accounts went through many editions. They appeared in different forms, were plagiarized, and were frequently cited in

in The other empire