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The origins and endurance of club regulation

1 Ethics ‘by and for professions’: the origins and endurance of club regulation Doctors and scientists successfully argued that they should be left to determine their own conduct during the nineteenth and much of the twentieth centuries, in a form of self-governance that Michael Moran terms ‘club regulation’.1 They portrayed medical and scientific ethics as internal concerns in this period – produced ‘by and for’ colleagues and mainly concerned with limiting intra-professional conflicts.2 This view of ethics functioned as what Harold Perkin calls a ‘strategy of

in The making of British bioethics

2 Ian Ramsey, theology and ‘trans-disciplinary’ medical ethics During the 1960s and 1970s Anglican theologians increasingly endorsed ‘trans-disciplinary’ discussion of new procedures such as IVF in societies and journals dedicated to medical ethics.1 Although theological engagement with medical ethics was by no means new, it increased from the 1960s thanks to a decline in religious belief. Figures such as Ian Ramsey, an Oxford theologian and later Bishop of Durham, endorsed greater engagement with social and moral issues to maintain the Church’s relevance in

in The making of British bioethics
A national ethics committee and bioethics during the 1990s

6 Consolidating the ‘ethics industry’: a national ethics committee and bioethics during the 1990s During the 1980s many of the individuals who were pivotal to the making of British bioethics sought to establish what the British Medical Journal identified as a ‘national bioethics committee’.1 Ian Kennedy, for one, regularly called for a politically funded committee based on the American President’s Commission, and his proposals were often endorsed by newspapers and other bioethicists. They were also endorsed by senior figures at the BMA, who believed a national

in The making of British bioethics
The emergence of bioethics in British universities

5 ‘A service to the community as a whole’: the emergence of bioethics in British universities Bioethics made inroads into British universities during the 1980s, thanks largely to those individuals, groups and political changes that we have already encountered. During the late 1970s and early 1980s members of medical groups and public figures such as Ian Kennedy called for greater emphasis on medical ethics in student training. They also stressed the benefits of ‘non-medical’ input, claiming that it relieved clinicians from teaching responsibilities and would

in The making of British bioethics

O. Jürgens, Die Beschränkung der strafrechtlichen Haftung für ärztliche Behandlungsfehler (Frankfurt am Main: Lang, 2005), 23–5. 6 Variations in the number of cases are generally far more consistent than König's examples imply. Next to the figures in A.-H. Maehle, Doctors, Honour, and the Law: Medical Ethics in Imperial Germany (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2009), 32; see also Jürgens, Beschränkung der strafrechtlichen

in Progress and pathology
Open Access (free)
Narratives of balance and moderation at the limits of human performance

the narratives of balance and moderation at extremes explicitly framed the white adult male body as the standard form: theirs was the ‘normal’ homeostasis, which was disrupted by extreme environments; theirs were the ‘normal’ physiological reactions that responded to this disruption. Moderate gentlemen and scientific ethics These earliest investigations into human adaptation – that is, re balancing – to altitude discovered that altitude caused an apparently universal, ‘normal’ physiological reaction in the blood. Significant

in Balancing the self
The Fowlers and modern brain disorder

R. Savarese, ‘From neurodiversity to neurocosmopolitanism: beyond mere acceptance and inclusion’, in A. Perry and C. Herrera (eds), Ethics and Neurodiversity (Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2013), 191–205. 112 S. Silberman, Neurotribes: The Legacy of Autism and the Future of Neurodiversity (New York: Avery, 2015), 473

in Progress and pathology
Visualising obesity as a public health concern in 1970s and 1980s Britain

–209. 9 Gilman, Picturing Health , pp. 33–50 and 115–72; J. J. Brumberg, The Body Project: An Intimate History of American Girls (New York: Vintage, 1988), pp. 97–137. 10 S. Shapin, ‘How to eat like a gentleman: dietetics and ethics in early modern England’, in C. E. Rosenberg (ed.), Right Living: An Anglo-American Tradition of Self-Help Medicine and Hygiene (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins

in Balancing the self
Open Access (free)
Health as moral economy in the long nineteenth century

–305. 63 J. Vernon, Hunger: A Modern History (Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press, 2007). 64 N. Götz, ‘“Moral economy”: its conceptual history and analytical prospects’, Journal of Global Ethics , 11 (2015), 147–62, https://doi.org/10.1080/17449626.2015.1054556 . 65

in Progress and pathology

examine complaints concerning clinical decision-making. Nonetheless, continual media attention ensured that ‘scandals’ became a regular feature of reportage into the 1980s, and doctors became subject to public criticism. 9 Campaigns for change emerged out of such scrutiny, and throughout the 1980s parliamentary figures pressured the General Medical Council to clarify minimum standards for ethics and professional conduct and to bring incompetence into the disciplinary arena. 10 The weakness of complaints mechanisms available to professionals and

in Managing diabetes, managing medicine