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Coreen Anne McGuire

psychogenic but it is possible that it was partly due to the effect of mining.’ 154 Thus, if causation from dust or disease could not be established, then it followed that the problem must be related to the essential constitution of the miner. Similarly, attempts to clarify normal reference values were marked by attempts to explain variability in lung function through racial and ethnic difference. 155 The MRC’s original investigation reported considerations of whether or not the Welsh were actually a separate racial group, and if so, whether that could account for their

in Measuring difference, numbering normal
Open Access (free)
Coreen Anne McGuire

somewhat arbitrary supposition of relevance: Out of all the ways by which people differ from one another, why should it be assumed that sex and gender, race and ethnicity, and age are the attributes of identity that are most medically meaningful? Why these markers of identity and not others? And are there differences among these types of difference, such that the same policy remedies may not be appropriate for each case? 34 To use a sporting analogy, we divide competitors into weight classes for boxing, but do not divide high jumpers by height though it seems

in Measuring difference, numbering normal
Disease, conflict and nursing in the British Empire, 1880–1914
Angharad Fletcher

more than London. Trade was facilitated by approximately 4,000 European residents working alongside 200,000 Chinese labourers, most of whom were Cantonese immigrants from the mainland.17 Although it was an overwhelmingly Chinese city, John Carroll has argued that Hong Kong was, to some extent, a multi-ethnic society comprising Chinese, Europeans, Americans, Armenians, Indians, Portuguese from Macau, Jews from Bombay and Eurasians, who gravitated towards segregated communities yet maintained extensive daily contact.18 Successive Governors noted that Hong Kong was a

in Colonial caring
Open Access (free)
Martin D. Moore

-level interventions’, NICE Guidance , May 2011, available at: https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/ph35/chapter/2-Public-health-need-and-practice (accessed February 2018). 85 Health outcomes and attendance at health services are often worse for minority ethnic and socio-economically deprived communities, as well for persons experiencing significant instability, such as homelessness: M. Evandrou, J. Falkingham, Z. Feng, and A. Vlachantoni, ‘Ethnic inequalities in limiting health and self-reported health in later life’, Journal of Epidemiology and Community

in Managing diabetes, managing medicine
Barbra Mann Wall

, constitutional changes increased Nigerian self-governance, and in 1960 the country obtained independence, albeit an unstable one.1 Political tensions and ethnic and religious differences led to the civil war that began in 1967 when the southeastern area attempted to secede to form the Republic of Biafra. During the Nigerian civil war, Catholic mission hospitals became sites for a shift in the understanding of nursing and medical practices as missionaries worked to care for survivors of violence. After the war, a dominant role for Nigerians began in Catholic healthcare missions

in Colonial caring
Open Access (free)
Narratives of balance and moderation at the limits of human performance
Vanessa Heggie

below, due to the slippage between ‘blood’, ‘race’ and ‘ethnicity’, a Peruvian researcher interpreted a British researcher's statement about homeostasis as a national slur. Blood and race Western physiologists working in the nineteenth century maintained a long-standing, Eurocentric assumption that the ideal environment for humans was the temperate zone. While the (white) body might be able to survive in extreme environments, there would inevitably be a biological price to pay, both in an individual sense and also a racial one

in Balancing the self
South Korea’s development of a hepatitis B vaccine and national prevention strategy focused on newborns
Eun Kyung Choi and Young-Gyung Paik

accepted outside Korea, Korean doctors did not all agree with it. For example, Dr J. J. Koo said, ‘There is a huge difference in the hepatitis carrier rate between ethnic groups and countries.’ 23 With these research outcomes, the opinion of South Korean doctors was skewed toward the position that the South Korean situation could be different from the Taiwanese one. While Korean people feared that the hepatitis virus could be

in The politics of vaccination
Open Access (free)
Paul Greenough, Stuart Blume, and Christine Holmberg

duty and shared solidarity in others. As a rule, controversy clings to immunisation programmes, 2 and different social formations – classes, urban elites, ethnic and confessional majorities and minorities, specialised workforces, refugees, provincial antagonists of capital cities – have at different times and places disputed, evaded or actively opposed state-led vaccination. Nonetheless, in most communities vaccines have come to be accepted

in The politics of vaccination
Open Access (free)
Contextualising colonial and post-colonial nursing
Helen Sweet and Sue Hawkins

issues of race and ethnicity associated with segregation and ‘protection’. The discussions are then taken further into the twentieth century for the final third of the book, reflecting upon Italian colonialism in Ethiopia, guerrilla nursing in China by British and American nurses and Irish Catholic missionary doctors and nurses working in colonial and post-colonial Nigeria. In these chapters, religion and humanitarianism – as well as nursing in the face of stark inhumanity – become part of the equation, whilst relationships between colonised and colonisers is explored

in Colonial caring
Martin D. Moore

Rather, the stress that some early-century clinicians placed on patient intelligence was often an indicator of class-based presumptions about capability, with these practitioners believing a patient's socio-economic status, education or ethnicity provided barriers to effective self-governance. 75 Describing an encounter with ‘a young Irish soldier, who had escaped school in the past’, one London physician wrote in 1917 of how he ‘attempted to explain to [the patient] in simple language that he was suffering from a

in Balancing the self