the main University building, and Lundagård, with runic stones from the Viking period, busts of dead scholars, and buildings from the Middle Ages, the Renaissance, and the nineteenth and twentieth centuries in particular. Most centuries since the foundation of the city are represented. So the past is everywhere, but it is neither foreign nor distant. The past is familiar and present in my everydaylife.
The architecture of Universitetsplatsen can easily be recognised in old pictures where the great changes of recent times have not yet taken place: an academic
Re-thinking Ludwik Fleck’s concept of the thought-collective according to
the case of Serbian archaeology
-collectives (the most common interpretation
of the character of the scientific community), in which every member
is encouraged to study and advance, from dogmatic collectives, which
develop dogmatic ways of thinking, basing rules of conduct on some
mythical figure/founder/saviour from the distant past. Everydaylife in
the latter type of community has a reinforced, ceremonial character and
access to esoteric circles is well guarded. Within these circles there is no
room for fundamentally new ideas – only a more precise following of
existing principles. A thought-collective is
saw protests, demonstrations, and actions that same summer.
That the defence of a World Heritage site may threaten a modern development became apparent in Dresden, just as it obviously threatens everydaylife in Venice; but can the World Heritage Convention itself come under threat as an international convention despite the present consensus? Yes: if “Pax Americana”, the global world order after the Second World War with organisations such as the UN and UNESCO, falls, the convention will fall as well. Michel Batisse wrote, “[l]ike many international agreements
enlightened and entertained by historical dramas such as Downton Abbey , about life on an English country estate in the decades after the loss of the Titanic . The past can offer a temporary refuge from the dreariness or problems of everydaylife, and then it acts therapeutically. In narrative form, the past may contribute to health and reduce, or deflect attention from, the problems of the present (cf. Asplund Ingemark 2013 ).
Narratives about the past, the present, and the future are by no means new; indeed, they are something fundamental that characterises human
, binding or hobbling and taking out on to the bog) before a second more dramatic violence that harnesses a new, creative vitality: allowing the participants to ‘return’ to everydaylife but leaving them tainted or glowing with this transcendental aura (Bloch 1992 , discussed in Ralph 2013 : 7–8). This is not just sanctioned but ‘sanctified violence’ (Ralph 2013 ). In contrast to Fontijn’s work on deposition, sacrifice here is seen as ‘a means to an end rather than an end in itself’ (Aldhouse-Green 2002 : 20): an exchange designed to reap benefits, rooted in