so it is necessary to move beyond the typical generalizations found in the
history of medicine. Like the other contributors in this volume, this
chapter aims to explore the presence of magical elements in everydaylife
during the modern period, and thereby broaden the usual location of magical
practice in the medieval and early modern periods. 3 The chronological focus of the following
discussion is defined by two major
Civilising Rural Ireland examines how modern Ireland emerged out of the social and economic transformation prompted by the rural co-operative movement. The movement emerged in response to systemic economic problems that arose throughout the nineteenth century and coincided with a wide-ranging project of cultural nationalism. Within a short space of time the co-operative movement established a swathe of creameries, agricultural societies and credit societies, leading to a radical reorganisation of rural Ireland and helping to create a distinctive Irish political economy. The work of overlooked co-operative experts is critically examined for the first time and reinserted into the process of state development. The interventions of these organisers, intellectuals and farmers built up key institutions that shaped everyday life across rural communities. The movement weathered war and revolution, to become an indispensable part of an Irish state infrastructure after independence in 1922. The strained relationship and economic rivalry that developed between Irish and British co-operators is also explored in order to illuminate the changing relationship between Ireland and the United Kingdom from an economic perspective. Civilising Rural Ireland will appeal to a wide audience interested in modern Irish history and readers are introduced to an eclectic range of personalities who shared an interest in co-operation and whose actions possessed important consequences for the way Ireland developed. The creative use of local and national sources, many of which are examined for the first time, mean the book offers a new perspective on an important period in the making of modern Ireland.
The study of witchcraft accusations in Europe during the period after the end of the witch trials is still in its infancy. Witches were scratched in England, swum in Germany, beaten in the Netherlands and shot in France. The continued widespread belief in witchcraft and magic in nineteenth- and twentieth-century France has received considerable academic attention. The book discusses the extent and nature of witchcraft accusations in the period and provides a general survey of the published work on the subject for an English audience. It explores the presence of magical elements in everyday life during the modern period in Spain. The book provides a general overview of vernacular magical beliefs and practices in Italy from the time of unification to the present, with particular attention to how these traditions have been studied. By functioning as mechanisms of social ethos and control, narratives of magical harm were assured a place at the very heart of rural Finnish social dynamics into the twentieth century. The book draws upon over 300 narratives recorded in rural Finland in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries that provide information concerning the social relations, tensions and strategies that framed sorcery and the counter-magic employed against it. It is concerned with a special form of witchcraft that is practised only amongst Hungarians living in Transylvania.
Needham Papers, NCUACS 54/3/95 File A.624, Cambridge University
35 E. C. Laurence, A Nurse’s Life in War and Peace (London: Smith, Elder and
Co., 1912), p. 282.
36 ‘The Nursing Board: Queen Alexandra’s Imperial Military Nursing Service’.
37 H. Dampier, ‘The treatment of “EverydayLife” in memory and narrative of
the concentration camps of the South African War, 1899–1902’, in N. Kelly,
C. Horrocks, K. Milnes, B. Roberts and D. Robinson (eds), Narrative, Memory
and EverydayLife (Huddersfield: University of Huddersfield, 2005), p. 188.
38 Dampier, ‘The
is barely coloured
by anthropology and therefore offers hardly any room for what has come to be
called the history of everydaylife. 3
In this chapter I will apply an anthropological perspective.
This way I will show what thinking and acting in terms of witchcraft, in
short the witchcraft discourse, implied for the way people dealt with space
and to a lesser extent with time, as well as for what they thought about the
evangelical principles to everydaylife in society. Another
was through education; and this was the work that earned Melanchthon a
reputation as an architect of German education and the label ‘Preceptor of
Germany.’ 8 This activity began with eﬀorts to re-establish the Nuremberg
Latin school, an institution that had prospered under the patronage of an
educated patrician class, and continued through the reorganization of a number
of higher institutions that would acquire and hold prominence for centuries.
No individual before the nineteenth century was as inﬂuential in the
sphere of economics and social organisation.
The mundane rhythms and experiences of everydaylife also played a crucial part in this process. The practice of co-operation between citizens mattered as much as the effects of conflict. Through the gradual assimilation of its network of co-operative businesses built around creameries, credit societies and other forms of association, the IAOS helped to create a modern agrarian state. Many rivals contested the extension of co-operative businesses, but by the outbreak of the First World War, these
sources from parish archives show
how far into the century the fear of the uncertainties of everydaylife was
expressed in terms of magic and witchcraft. As a consequence Catholic Church
admonitions were rather common. In the autumn of 1837, for example, the wife
of the bargeman Goswin Schneider of Remagen was ostracized as a witch and
physically abused. The Remagen population accused the woman of having
bewitched a sick child
witchcraft on the borderline of religion and magic
old woman will be dead by the time
you get home’.
Unfortunately, we cannot as yet see clearly the degree to
which the everydaylife and world-views of the given society are affected by
the belief system and ritual of having someone ‘done in’. The greatest
problem is that we can only see the co-operation of the ‘holy persons’ from
‘below’, from the point of view of the malefactors employing these services
opportunity for lengthy travel or residence abroad who discover that
deeper acquaintance with the two nations reverses the position; it reveals
the deep cleavage between the English and German mentality, despite
their superficial resemblance, and it shows how the English and French so
different in everydaylife and in apparent approach, do believe in the same
Predicting an Allied victory, Balfour could not have foreseen how his
observations would be put to the test by the enforced residence of
thousands of French men, women and