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Open Access (free)
Yalta farewell; how new a world?
Kjell M. Torbiörn

The fall of the Berlin Wall in November 1989 led, in rapid succession over the next two years, to German unification, Baltic state independence, the dissolution of the Soviet Union and its replacement by Russia and other successor countries, the fall of communism in Central and Eastern Europe, and the dissolution of the Warsaw Pact. Capitalism, liberalised world trade and new electronics technology seemed to have carried the day. The hope of the countries concerned for a new Marshall Plan was not met, but a new European Bank for Reconstruction and Development was meant to fulfil a similar function. In 1993, the European Union (EU) concluded a European Economic Area agreement with various European Free Trade Association countries, tying them closer to it in the areas of trade and investment. The disintegration of Yugoslavia beginning in 1990, and the several wars it led to, posed serious challenges to the EU and the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO), apart from signifying a tragedy for the people of the region.

in Destination Europe
Open Access (free)
Kjell M. Torbiörn

hazardous voyages across the Strait of Sicily to southern Italian islands from nearby Tunisia, or from Morocco across the Strait of Gibraltar to Spain – often paying small fortunes to traffickers. Countries in Central, Eastern and South-Eastern Europe, meanwhile, send migrants, mainly to Western Europe. They also receive them, either from neighbouring countries following the freer migration climate after the fall of communism, or from outside Europe. The Central, Eastern and South-Eastern parts of Europe also serve as transits for migrants wanting to go further west. The

in Destination Europe