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A critical reassessment
Denis O’Hearn

macroeconomic environment through restrictive fiscal policy, stable exchange rates and so on.3 On this basis, economists cite the Irish case to support the orthodoxy of the International Monetary Fund (IMF), the OECD and other international bodies that favour macroeconomic stability over all other social and economic policy variables. The new orthodoxy as the EU enters into a phase of enlargement is to convince the accession countries that they will converge if they maximise the openness of their trade, get the macroeconomics right and encourage labour flexibility. Mainstream

in The end of Irish history?
Annamaria Simonazzi

devaluation, and austerity-oriented fiscal policies are used to complement and Labour policies in a deflationary environment 269 reinforce the structural reforms. Consequently, the landscape of industrial relations has deeply changed and the ‘European social acquis’, rooted in social dialogue and public systems of social protection, is everywhere in retreat. A ‘toxic austeritarism’ (Hyman, 2015) ‘has left little or no margin for domestic democratic institutions and social actors, downgraded from political to executive subjects’ (Leonardi, 2016). The long crisis and the

in Making work more equal
Australia, France and Sweden compared
Dominique Anxo
Marian Baird
, and
Christine Erhel

and France, with lower maternal employment and considerably shorter part-time work hours. These patterns may be explained, at least in part, by the policy regimes in each of the countries, which we discuss next. Policies and work-care regimes The differences in labour market outcomes for women have to be understood in relation to the nation’s institutions and public policies, including parental leave, childcare and flexible work policies, as well as social and fiscal policies and labour market regulations. The differences in the care regimes in the three countries

in Making work more equal
Cameron Ross

debt offsets, have been used as primary tools for the conduct of relatively independent fiscal policies at the subnational level’. These include the use of ‘barter chains’, ‘creative book keeping’ and ‘individualised tax treatment’. Moreover, regional administrations will often have very cosy relations with the financial institutions in their territories, including direct participation in their capital, indirect participation through affiliated companies, control of utilities, control of various inspections empowered to administer penalties and fines, close ties with

in Federalism and democratisation in Russia