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Biography of a Radical Newspaper
Robert Poole

The newly digitised Manchester Observer (1818–22) was England’s leading radical newspaper at the time of the Peterloo meeting of August 1819, in which it played a central role. For a time it enjoyed the highest circulation of any provincial newspaper, holding a position comparable to that of the Chartist Northern Star twenty years later and pioneering dual publication in Manchester and London. Its columns provide insights into Manchester’s notoriously secretive local government and policing and into the labour and radical movements of its turbulent times. Rich materials in the Home Office papers in the National Archives reveal much about the relationship between radicals in London and in the provinces, and show how local magistrates conspired with government to hound the radical press in the north as prosecutions in London ran into trouble. This article also sheds new light on the founding of the Manchester Guardian, which endured as the Observer’s successor more by avoiding its disasters than by following its example. Despite the imprisonment of four of its main editors and proprietors the Manchester Observer battled on for five years before sinking in calmer water for lack of news.

Bulletin of the John Rylands Library
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Anglo-American affinities and antagonisms 1854–1936

This book addresses the special relationship from the perspective of post-Second World War British governments. It argues that Britain's foreign policy challenges the dominant idea that its power has been waning and that it sees itself as the junior partner to the hegemonic US. The book also shows how at moments of international crisis successive British governments have attempted to re-play the same foreign policy role within the special relationship. It discusses the power of a profoundly antagonistic relationship between Mark Twain and Walter Scott. The book demonstrates Stowe's mis-reading and mis-representation of the Highland Clearances. It explains how Our Nig, the work of a Northern free black, also provides a working-class portrait of New England farm life, removed from the frontier that dominates accounts of American agrarian life. Telegraphy - which transformed transatlantic relations in the middle of the century- was used by spiritualists as a metaphor for the ways in which communications from the other world could be understood. The story of the Bolton Whitman Fellowship is discussed. Beside Sarah Orne Jewett's desk was a small copy of the well-known Raeburn portrait of Sir Walter Scott. Henry James and George Eliot shared a transatlantic literary network which embodied an easy flow of mutual interest and appreciation between their two milieux. In her autobiography, Gertrude Stein assigns to her lifelong companion the repeated comment that she has met three geniuses in her life: Stein, Picasso, and Alfred North Whitehead.

Working memories
Author: David Calder

Street theatre and the production of postindustrial space explores how street theatre transforms industrial space into postindustrial space. Deindustrializing communities have increasingly turned to cultural projects to commemorate industrial heritage while simultaneously generating surplus value and jobs in a changing economy. Through analysis of French street theatre companies working out of converted industrial sites, this book reveals how theatre and performance more generally participate in and make historical sense of ongoing urban and economic change. The book argues, firstly, that deindustrialization and redevelopment rely on the spatial and temporal logics of theatre and performance. Redevelopment requires theatrical events and performative acts that revise, resituate, and re-embody particular pasts. The book proposes working memory as a central metaphor for these processes. The book argues, secondly, that in contemporary France street theatre has emerged as working memory's privileged artistic form. If the transition from industrial to postindustrial space relies on theatrical logics, those logics will manifest differently depending on geographic context. The book links the proliferation of street theatre in France since the 1970s to the crisis in Fordist-Taylorist modernity. How have street theatre companies converted spaces of manufacturing into spaces of theatrical production? How do these companies (with municipal governments and developers) connect their work to the work that occurred in these spaces in the past? How do those connections manifest in theatrical events, and how do such events give shape and meaning to redevelopment? Street theatre’s function is both economic and historiographic. It makes the past intelligible as past and useful to the present.

The ends of incompletion
Chloe Porter

of authority. The theme of ‘enforced’ incompletion is repeated later in the prose work. In 1563, the Elizabethan government drafted a proclamation suggesting measures for the regulation of the production of portraits of the queen. The plan was for one image of Elizabeth I to be made by ‘some special commission painter’, as a stock ‘example’ to be ‘followed’ in all other

in Making and unmaking in early modern English drama
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The Republic and Northern Ireland since 1990
Michael Parker

established in 1983. Crime levels began to soar particularly in the major cities, like Dublin and Cork, and drug abuse became an increasingly pressing issue.2 ‘Despondency seems to be on the increase’, noted one commentator working for the Institute of Public Administration, adding that ‘the intractability of our problems’ appeared to have ‘sapped our will to solve them’.3 Not least among the seemingly intractable problems faced by the Irish and the British Governments in the 1980s was the continuing violence in Northern Ireland. There the 1980–81 Hunger Strikes ‘seared

in Irish literature since 1990
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A practical politics of care
Caoimhe McAvinchey

, ideas of care are discredited ideologically and economically: relational acts of caregiving – parenting, looking after friends and family members who are living with long-term illnesses, disability or the effects of age – are under-recognised contributions to society. In the case of the UK, where the state may issue a carer’s allowance, carers often find themselves discredited and viewed as an economic drain on society, despite the fact that their hidden work saves the government over £123 billion a year on health and social care (Carers UK, 2015 ). Additionally, as

in Performing care
The Actresses’ Franchise League from 1914 to 1928
Naomi Paxton

founding the People’s League of Health in 1917. What becomes evident in the few accounts of the AFL’s work immediately after the outbreak of war written by those who took part is the prejudice they faced as women wanting to assist, rather than challenge, the government. Initially, the voluntary work done by women was barely acknowledged, financially unsupported and undervalued by the very organisations the AFL was trying to help. Lena Ashwell remembered that ‘Weekly lists were sent to the War Office, containing full particulars as to the numbers of women we could supply

in Stage women, 1900–50
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Lesbian citizenship and filmmaking in Sweden in the 1970s
Ingrid Ryberg

a company called Tjejfilm [‘Chick Film’] in Gothenburg. Both were funded by the state agency Socialstyrelsen [The National Board of Health and Welfare] and are the first cases of publicly funded films made by, with and about open lesbians in Sweden. Paradoxically, the same state agency was at this time also in charge of the official classification of homosexuality as a mental disorder (Socialstyrelsen, 1968). However, just a few years later the classification would be dropped and an official government report, ‘Utredningen om homosexuellas situation i samhället

in The power of vulnerability
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Syrian displacement and care in contemporary Beirut
Ella Parry- Davies

the hostility to Syrian refugees prevalent in both Lebanese and international media, and, on the other hand, the reductive stereotype of the victim (which I will go on to discuss later in this chapter). Remarkable popular initiatives providing support to refugee populations in Lebanon have been counterposed by mediatised images of refugees as burdensome and threatening additions to an already strained national infrastructure. Despite much active support for refugees, the Lebanese government has perpetuated a fear of the Syrian presence and its apparent risk for

in Performing care
Cardboard publishers in Latin America
Lucy Bell

proposed. Some have suggested the need for a fourth dimension: in 1997, the German Wuppertal Institute reformulated the principles of sustainability as a prism in which the fourth 78 Discourses of sustainability triangle is the ‘institution’ (Dalal-Clayton and Sadler 2014: 54); in 2008, the Committee on Culture of the United Cities and Local Governments asked for culture to be recognised as the ‘fourth pillar’ of sustainable development’, as drawn out in the Agenda 21 for culture (United Cities and Local Governments 2008). Others have sought to represent the model of

in Literature and sustainability