in the second decade of the twenty-first century.
Professor Philip Alston (UN Special Rapporteur on extreme poverty and humanrights) recently visited the UK and reported on the impact that the austerity measures implemented since 2010 had had on the disabled. One of the aspects of these measures that he repeatedly emphasised was the extent to which the system for claiming employment and support benefits (ESA) had been designed to be difficult . This was facilitated by the system’s ‘digital by default’ design, which he argued had been purposefully intended to
(however it is resisted by scientists and humanrights campaigners) can act to essentialise social categories.’ 134 These essentialised social categories are all too often those associated with non-standard bodies. This is a reference class problem, and the threat represented by contested reference classes to the apparent objectivity of normalcy will be explained and further explored in Chapter 2 .
In this context, measurement devices offered scientific objectivity but also offered a way to make the invisible visible . By this I mean not just invisible disability
shorten life. 2
Despite the Select Committee’s conclusions, euthanasia remained
a contentious and high-profile issue. This was due in no small part
to the campaigns of terminally ill patients such as Diane Pretty, who
suffered from Motor Neurone Disease and sought legal assurances
that her husband would not be prosecuted for helping her commit
suicide. Although Pretty lost her 2002 case at the Court of Appeal
and the European Court of HumanRights, continuing support for
the ‘right to die’ led Lord Joffe, a humanrights lawyer, to try and
get the House of Lords to
Paul Greenough, Stuart Blume, and Christine Holmberg
Discontents (Delhi: Orient BlackSwan,
H. Potts and P. Hunt, Accountability and the Right
to The Highest Attainable Standard of Health (Colchester: University
of Essex, HumanRights Centre, 2008).
R. G. Bernheim, J. F
Guerrilla nursing with the Friends Ambulance Unit, 1946–48
speaking out against humanrights violations and balancing cultural sensitivity, effectiveness and personal survival remain fundamental challenges of humanitarian nursing today. The voices of the
China Convoy nurses still resonate.
1 National Quaker History Archive (hereafter NQHA), Friends House, London
(hereafter FHL), FAU (1939–46), China Convoy Records Temp MSS 876, box
10, Personnel files: Joan Kennedy Woodrow.
2 K. Cruikshank, ‘Education, history and the art of biography’, American
Journal of Education, 107:3 (1999), 231–9.
3 Margaret Stanley’s private
of the Ruiz Castañeda and Zinsser Anti-Typhus Serum], Gaceta
Médica de México , 66:3 (1933), pp. 123–32.
T. Taylor, ‘The Doctor's Trial and the Nuremberg
Code. Opening Statement of the Prosecution, December 9, 1946’, in G.
J. Annas and M. A. Grodin (eds), The Nazi Doctors and the Nuremberg Code:
HumanRights in Human
the UN General Assembly and initiated an international agreement on
child rights that was the first of its kind, and which replaced all
non-binding international declarations on child rights that had
focused on children as passive recipients of care and charity. The
creation of the 1989 Convention was the outcome of proliferating
international agreements on humanrights
came to light in 1962 and burst ‘the bubble of postwar optimism’
surrounding medical research.146 At the same time, in their reports
on Thalidomide and other issues, the media adopted a more critical
‘watchdog’ stance in which they focused on social and ethical issues
instead of deferring to professional experts.147
Criticism also reflected the emergence of a ‘new politics’ in the
1960s and 1970s, in which concerns over class identity and economic security were replaced by an emphasis on humanrights and
individual autonomy.148 Change was often driven by the
comfort to those who would like to assume, that the clergy or other
moralists can or should settle problems for the doctors … Physicians
have an expertise and competence without which all non-medical
discussion of the rights and wrongs of medicine will be in danger of
becoming only wool-gathering.104
But Fletcher did pre-empt a central tenet of bioethics when he
emphasised that doctors must respect their patient’s ‘humanrights
Ian Ramsey and ‘trans-disciplinary’ medical ethics 79
(certain conditions being satisfied) to use contraceptives, to seek
A national ethics committee and bioethics during the 1990s
175 Ibid, p. 138.
176 Ibid, pp. 139–40.
177 Ibid, p. 3.
178 Ibid, pp. 144, 141.
179 Ibid, p. 73.
181 O’Neill, A Question of Trust, p. 83. Emphasis in original.
182 Although individual autonomy remained a component of ‘principled
autonomy’, O’Neill argued that it should only be ‘one minor aspect’.
See Ibid, p. 97.
183 Ibid, p. 158.
184 See, for example, Kennedy, ‘Preface’, p. vii. See also Ian Kennedy,
‘Doctors, Patients and HumanRights’, in Kennedy, Treat Me Right,
185 Kennedy, ‘Consumerism in the Doctor